Medical Malacology Department

  • Vision
  • Mission
  • Head of the Department
  • Staff Members
  • Research field
  • Achievements
  • Techniques
  • Structure
  • Training
  • Projects
  • Publications

Molluscs are a very important group of organisms from medical and evolutionary perspectives. Understanding of their biology enhance our capacity .

  1. control various parasitic diseases such as those transmitted by pulmonate snails
  2. establish molluscs as bioindicators and model organisms
  3. use them as a source for therapeutic products and
  4. determine the fingerprint of Egyptian molluscs.
  • Identification of medically important snails and cercariae transmitted by them as well as the identification of other molluscan species.
  • Studying the epidemiology of the host-parasite systems, mainly those concerning schistosomiasis and fascioliasis.
  • Establishment of molluscs as bioindicators and model organisms.
  • Providing consultations and guidelines for policy and decision makers regarding snail control.
  • Providing biological materials of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis for research, education and training purposes.

Prof. Hanan Shahat Mossalem
E mail: [email protected]



Former heads of the Laboratory

    • Late Prof. Fouad Yousif (1978-1991)
    • Emeritus Prof. Menriet Zaki Roushdy (1992-1998)
    • Emeritus Prof Mohamed A. El- Emam (1998-2001)
    • Emeritus Prof. Nawal Hasaballa Haroun (2001-2002)
    • Emeritus Prof. Kamilia Abass (2002-2013)
    • Emeritus Prof. Fathia Gawish (2013-2014)
    • Late Emeritus Prof. Fayez Ahmed Bakry (2014-2015)
    • Emeritus Prof.  Samia Nabih El-Bardicy (2015-2018)
    • Late Emeritus Prof.  Hoda Abdel Hamid (2018-2019)

Staff Members

    • Emeritus Prof. Dr. Menerit Z. Roushdy
    • Emeritus Prof. Dr. Mohamed Abd El-Wahab El-Emam
    • Emeritus Prof. Dr. Nawal H. Haroun
    • Emeritus Prof. Dr. Shadia Mohamed El-Dafrawy 
    • Emeritus Prof. Dr. Momena Bayoumi Mahmoud
    • Prof. Dr. Hanaa Mohamed Abu El-Einin
    • Emeritus Prof. Dr. Menerva Maher Tadros
    • Emeritus Prof. Dr. Karem Mohamed El-hommossany
    • Emeritus Assistant Prof. Dr. Magda Fayek Atalla Ayoub
    • Assistant Prof. Dr. Mohamed Ramadan Habib
    • Dr. Samah Ibrahim Ghoname
    • Dr. Amina Mohamed Ibrahim
    • Dr. Alaa Ahmed Youssef
    • Dr. Rasha Ezzat Mohamed Ali
    • Dr. Shereen Mahfouz Mansour
    • Dr. Rasha Mohamed Gad El-Karim
    • Dr. Khaled Muhamed Zayed
    • Dr. Ahmed Ahmed Abd El-Azeez Hussein
    • Dr. Marwa Mahmoud Mohammed Hassaneen
    • Dr. Marian Elias Makkar Elias
    • Dr. Hebat-Allah Ahmed Saleh Dokmak

The research plan of fields Medical Malacology Department is within the frame of the control research program which is one of the scientific research strategies of Theodor Bilharz Research Institute. This plan was designed to study:

    • Identification of snails and trematode cercariae using morphological and molecular techniques.
    • Studies on host-parasite relationships and parasite and host phylogeography.
    • Detection and characterization of the transmission foci of schistosomiasis as well as fascioliasis in fresh water bodies.
    • The discovery of novel methods for snail control and protection of human infection.
    • Testing the efficacy of existing and newly discovered molluscicides under laboratory and controlled semi-field conditions at the Snail Research Station, El-Qanater El-Khayeria, Qalubia Governorate.
    • Studying the biology of molluscs for biomedical and evolutionary purposes.
    • Economic importance of Mollusca.
    • Mollusca as a source for bioactive components.
  • Establishing and developing of the snail research station at El-Qanater (4000 m2), 25 km north of Cairo, which is a unique facility for snail studies under simulated natural conditions.
  • Conducting training courses in the field of Schistosomiasis and Medical Malacology for trainees from Egypt, Middle East and African countries, supported by different national and international organizations.
  • Providing consults to the Ministry of Health and Populations, Egypt regarding schistosomiasis control.
  • Identification of snails using different techniques.
  • Identification of cercariae released from snails.
  • Screening of some marine animal and plant extracts against snails and free larval stages of schistosomiasis.
  • Evaluation of schistosomiasis transmission in the River Nile at Greater Cairo related to human activities.
  • Using snails as model for neurotoxicity of heavy metals.
  • Testing the Chinese molluscicide Louwei/TDS against schistosomiasis snails vectors in Egypt (laboratory, semi-field and field tests).

  • Morphological and molecular identification of snails and larval stages of trematodes and nematodes.
  • Cercariometry for the identification of schistosomiasis transmission foci.
  • Screening new chemicals (natural or synthetic) for their molluscicidal and larvicidal activities and calculating their lethal concentrations.
  • Dissection of snails for neurobiological and histological investigations.
  • Immunocytochemistry.
  • Field malacological surveys.
  • Maintenance of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis life cycles.
  • Identification of the molluscs extracts and using it therapeutically.

The Laboratory consists of seven equipped laboratories in addition to the Snail Research Station (SRS) at El-Qanater El-Khayria, Qalubia Governorate. SRS was established by Late Prof. Dr. Fouad Yousif (1986). It is a unique facility for snail studies under simulated natural conditions. It is composed of:

    • Eighteen parallel experimental ditches each of 30 m length, 1.5 m width and 0.5 m depth
    • Two laboratories and a store
    • Underground water pump for water supply (40 m depth)

The Laboratory contains the basic research instruments such as:

    • Dissection and upright microscopes equipped with cameras.
    • Spectrophotometers.
    • Deep freezers (-20 °C).
    • Hot plate.
    • ELISA reader.
    • Cooling centrifuge.
    • Snail dip nets.
    • Cercariometry apparatus.
    • Cooling room.
    • pH, temperature, conductivity and total dissolved solids meter

  • Tools for snails sampling from watercourses.
  • Microscopes for examination of infected snails.
  • Snails and mice infection with Schistosoma and Fasciola.
  • Calculation of lethal concentrations of molluscicides
  • Snails dissection and preparation for histological, immunological, neurobiological investigations.


    1. US-STDF cycle 17 (2017-2020): A neurobiological approach to vector control of schistosomiasis. PI: Dr. Mohamed R. Habib

    2. National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, China CDC, Shanghai, China (2016): Evaluation of the Chinese Luowei/TDS plant molluscicide on the snail intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium. PI: Prof. Mohamed A. El-Emam


    1. TBRI internal project number 103M (2018-2020): Molluscicidal impacts of extract of six Egyptian plants on biological; physiological and molecular aspects of Biomphalaria alexandrina, the snail host of Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt. PI: Dr. Amina Mohamed Ibrahim.

    2. TBRI internal project number 105C (2018-2020): Importance of lipid profile of the schistosome intermediate host in determination of the resistance or susceptibility of the snail. PI: Prof. Samia El Bardicy

    3. TBRI internal project number 100M (2016-2019): The role of some plants extracts in raising resistance of snails to infection with trematodes. PI: Prof. Hanan Shahat Mossalem.

    4. TBRI internal project number 94M (2013-2018): Experimental Studies on the role of some aquatic predaceous insects as a bio-controlling agent of the medically important fresh water snails. PI: Prof. Fathyia Gawish

    5. TBRI internal project number 92M (2013-2017): Impact of some herbicides on biological, hematological, histological, physiological and molecular aspects of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails as intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. PI: Prof. Fayez Ahmed BakryTBRI internal project number 95M (2013-2016): Genetic studies and molecular identification of Lymnaea Snails (Family Lymnaeidae) in certain Governorates in Egypt. PI:  Prof. Samia Nabih El-Bardicy

    6. TBRI internal project number 93M (2012-2015): Bulinus species from Egypt: Molecular characterization, immunological markers and compatibility with Schistosoma haematobium parasite. PI: Prof. Hanaa Abdel-Moneam Abu El-Elinin

    7. TBRI internal project number 91M (2013-2016): Influence of some immunostimulants on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and their susceptibility to infection with Schistosoma mansoni. PI: Prof. Kamelia El-Sayed

    8. TBRI internal project number 96C (2012-2016): Molluscs as models for testing the neurotoxic effects of some heavy metals and the protective role of some medicinal plants. PI: Prof. Ahmed T. Sharaf El-Din

    9. TBRI internal project number 92M (2012): Impact of some herbicides on biological and physiological aspects of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails as intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. PI: Prof. Fayez Bakry

    10. TBRI internal project number 85M (2012-2015): Bioassay of Methanol Extract from Certain Egyptian Plant species against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and their infection with Schistosoma mansoni. PI: Prof. Hoda Abdel-Hamid

El-Emam MA, Gawish FA, Habib MR, Wang W, Sun LP, Engels D, Zhang NM, Jia TW, Zhou XN (2020): Semi-field and field trials to control Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus, intermediate host snails of schistosomiasis in Egypt by the plant molluscicide Luowei/TDS 4%. Egypt. J. Aquat. Biol. Fish., 24(5): 95 -109.

Fodor I, Hussein AA, Benjamin PR, Koene JM, Pirger Z (2020): The Natural History of Model Organisms: The unlimited potential of the great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. eLife 2020;9:e56962. DOI:

Ibrahim AM; Ghoname SI; Mansour SM and El- Dafrawy SM (2020): Effect of some medicinal plant extracts as molluscicidal and apoptotic agents on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Egypt. J. Aquat. Biol. Fish., 24(2): 291 – 300.

Ibrahim, AM, Abdel-Tawab, H (2020): Cystoseira barbata marine algae have a molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails supported by scanning electron microscopy, hematological and histopathological alterations, and larvicidal activity against the infective stages of Schistosoma mansoni. Biologia.

Ibrahim, AM and Ghareeb, MA (2020): Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Total Phenolic Content, In Vitro Antioxidant and Molluscicidal Activities of the Methanolic Extract of Five Medicinal Plants on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. J. Herbs Spices Med. Plants, 26(1): 40- 48.

Habib, MR, Ghoname, SI, Ali, RE, Gad El-Karim, RM, Youssef, AA, Croll, RP, Miller, MW (2020): Biochemical and apoptotic changes in the nervous and ovotestis tissues of Biomphalaria alexandrina following infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Exp. Parasitol., 213: 107887.

El-Khayat HMM, Abu Taleb HM, Helal NS, Ghoname SI (2020): Assessment of metallothionein expression in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and Oreochromis niloticus Fish as a biomarker for water pollution with heavy metals. Egypt. J. Aquat. Biol. Fish., 24(2): 209 – 223.

Mossalem HS and Ibrahim AM (2019): The ameliorative potential of the ethanol extract of the plant Ocimum basilicum on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails exposed to the insecticide Bestacid. Egypt. J. Aquat. Biol. Fish., 23(1): 161 -172.

Mossalem HS and Mansour SM (2019): Effect of Propofol Fresensius 1% on nervous system ultrastructure of Biomphalaria alexandrina. Egypt. J. Aquat. Biol. Fish., 23(1): 265 -274.

Jia TW, Wang W, Sun L, Shan L, Yang K, Zhang N, Huang X, Liu J, Liu H, Liu R, Gawish FA, Habib MR, El-Emam MA, King CH and Zhou X (2019): Molluscicidal effectiveness of Luo-Wei, a novel plant-derived molluscicide, against Oncomelania hupensisBiomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncates. Infect. dis. pov., 8: 27.

Ibrahim A, Abdel-Tawab, H and Hussein, T (2019): Pentoxifylline and/or praziquantel reduce murine schistosomiasis mansoni histopathology via amelioration of liver functions. Egypt. J. Aquat. Biol. Fish., 23(5): 121 – 133.

Ibrahim, AM and Nasr SM (2019): Cytochrome oxidase subunit and internal transcribed spacer molecular revelation of infection with Fasciola Sp. In field- collected Lymnaea natalensis snails. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol., 49(2): 357 – 364.

Ibrahim AM and Bakry FA (2019): Assessment of the molluscicidal impact of extracted chlorophyllin on some biochemical parameters in the nervous tissue and histological changes in Biomphalaria alexandrina and Lymnaea natalensis snails. Invertebrate Neuroscience, 19:7;

Ibrahim AM, Ahmed AK, Bakry FA, Shalash IR and Abdel-Ghaffar F (2019): Toxicological impact of butralin, glyphosate-isopropylammonium and pendimethalin herbicides on physiological parameters of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Malacol. Soc. Austral. Soc. Stud. Mollusc. Divers. Published online 07 Apr (1-10) DOI: 10.1080/13235818.2019.1592296.

Ibrahim AM and Sayed DA (2019): Toxicological impact of oxyfluorfen 24% herbicide on the reproductive system, antioxidant enzymes, and endocrine disruption of Biomphalaria alexandrina (Ehrenberg, 1831) snails. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., DOI 10.1007/s11356-019-04251-w

Ibrahim AM and Sayed DA (2019): Toxicological impact of oxyfluorfen 24% herbicide on the reproductive system, antioxidant enzymes, and endocrine disruption of Biomphalaria alexandrina (Ehrenberg, 1831) snails. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., DOI 10.1007/s11356-019-04251-w

Ibrahim AM and Ahmed AK (2019): Trematode cercarial fauna obtained from the field-collected freshwater snails Lymnea natalensis in Egypt. Bullet. Nat. Res. Center, 43: 86.

El-Beshbishi SN, El Bardicy S, Tadros M, Ayoub M and Taman A (2019): Biological activity of artemisinin-naphthoquine phosphate on Schistosoma haematobium stages and the vector Bulinus truncates. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg; 00: 1–6.

Beach, G, HabibMR, El Hiani, Y, Miller, MW, Croll, RP (2019): Localization of Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin-like Immunoreactivity in the Nervous System of Biomphalaria alexandrina. J Neuroscience Res., 97(11):1469-1482. 

Acker MJ, Habib MR, Beach GA, Doyle JM, Miller MW, Croll RP (2019): An immunohistochemical analysis of peptidergic neurons apparently associated with reproduction and growth in Biomphalaria alexandrina. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 1-8.

Abu El Einin HM, Ali RE, Gad RM, Youssef AA, Abdel-Hamid H and Habib MR (2019): Biomphalaria alexandrina: a model organism for assessing the endocrine disrupting effect of 17β-estradiol. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 1-9.

Vaasjo LO, Quintana1 AM, Habib MR, Mendez de Jesus PA, Croll RP, and Miller MW (2018): GABA-like Immunoreactivity in Biomphalaria: Colocalization with Tyrosine Hydroxylase-like Immunoreactivity in the Feeding Motor Systems of Panpulmonate Snails. J. Comp. Neurol. 2018 Apr 6. Doi: 10.1002/cne.24448.

Mossalem HS, Habib MR, and Ghareeb MA. (2018): Control of infection of Biomphalaria alexandrina (Ehrenberg, 1831) with Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 using Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Folia Malacol. 26(3): 155-165.

Moustafa MA, Mossalem HS, Sarhan RM, Abdel-Rahman AA and Hassan EM (2018): The potential effects of silver and gold nanoparticles as molluscicides and cercaricides on Schistosoma mansoni. Parasitol. Res., 117: 1-14

Mossalem HS (2018): Effect of Mentha Longifolia (Family Lamiacea) ethanol extract on Cercarea, miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni by Scanned electron microscopy and Biomphalaria alexandrina. Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res. 9: 1166-1177.

Mahmoud KMA, Sayed SSM and Habib MR (2018): Ecological Assessment of the River Nile Status around Gizert El-Warrak using Phytoplankton and Macroinvertebates Assemblages.  Egypt. J. Aquat. Biol. Fish., 22(4): 13-24

Ibrahim AM, Sayed SM and Rabia I (2018): Toxicological assessment of Lambda Cyhalothrin and Acetamiprid insecticides formulated mixture on hatchability rate, histological aspects and protein electrophoretic pattern of Biomphalaria alexandrina (Ehrenberg, 1831) snails. Environ Sci Pollut Res. Int. doi: 10.1007/s11356-018-3238-x.

Ibrahim AM, Abdel-Ghaffar F, Ahmed AK, and Bakry FA (2018): Hematological, physiological and genotoxicological effects of Match 5% EC insecticide on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 147: 1017–1022.

Ibrahim AM and Ghoname SI (2018): Molluscicidal impacts of Anagallis arvensis aqueous extract on biological, hormonal, histological and molecular aspects of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Exp. Parasitol. (192): 36-41.

Mohamed AH, Osman GY, El-Emam MA, Abdel-Hamid H and Ali REM (2018): Deteriorations in biological and biochemical aspects of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails exposed to methanol extract of Callistemon citrinus leaves. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. 48(2): 243-255.

El-Beshbishi S, El Bardicy S, Tadros M, Ayoub M and Taman A (2018): Efficacy of artemisinin–naphthoquine phosphate against Schistosoma haematobium adult flukes: dose–effect relationship and tegumental alterations. J. Helminthol., 2018 May 21:1-6. doi: 10.1017/S0022149X18000421.

Bakry FA, Atwa MT, Attia MM (2018): Three Strigeid cercariae from Littorina littorea snail, Qarun Lake, Fayoum, Egypt, Vet. World, 11(3): 310-315.

Younes A, El-Sherief, H, Gawish F and Mahmoud M (2017): Biological control of snail hosts transmitting schistosomiasis by the water bug, Sphaerodema urinator. Parasitol. Res., 116(4): 1257-1264.

Soliman MG, El-Sayed KA, Abou Ouf NA, El Fekky FA and Gad El-Karim RM (2017): Influence of immunostimulatory β-glucan on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails under laboratory and simulated field conditions. Europ. J. Biomed. Pharmaceut. Sci., 4(12), 41-50.

Saad El-Din AH, Abu El-Einin H, Abdel-Gaber R, Ayoub M and Mansour SM (2017): Assessment of Bulinus truncatus immune response against Schistosoma haematobium infection by tissue reaction and hemocytes count. Res. J. Pharmaceat. Biol. Chem. Sci., 8(3): 1186-1196.

Mossalem HS, Ghareeb MA, Refahy LA, Mohamed AS, Habib MR (2017): Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and antioxidant activity of Punica granatum L. Peels and its role as immunostimulant against Schistosoma mansoni infection in Biomphalaria alexandrina. Asian J. Pharmaceut. Clin. Res., 10(1): 1-7.

Mansour T, Habib MR, Vicente Rodríguez LV, Anthony Hernández Vázquez AH, Alers, JM, Ghezzi, A, Croll, RP, Brown, T, Miller, MW (2017): Central Nervous System Transcriptome of Biomphalaria alexandrina, an Intermediate Host for Schistosomiasis. BMC Res Notes, 10:729.

Ghoname SI, Mohamed AM and El- Dafrawy SM (2017): Immune response of stimulated Biomphalaria alexandrina snails with schistosoma mansoni infection. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol.,  47(1):219-225.

Ghoname SI, Hamad RS and El- Dafrawy SM (2017): Flow Cytometric Analysis of Cell Cycle and apoptosis-regulating proteins in Tissue of Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails. Res. J. Pharm. Biol. Chem. Sci., 8(1): 221-228.

Ibrahim AM and Abdalla AM (2017): Impact of Moringa oleifera seed aqueous extract on some biological, biochemical, and histological aspects of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 24(36):28072-28078. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-0397-0.

El-Emam MA, Osman GY, Abdel-Hamid H, Mohamed AH and Ali REM (2017): Determination of egg-laying capacity, steroid sex hormones and mortality of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails exposed to methanol extract from curcumin and the plants Callistemon citrinus and Zingiber officinale. J. Bio. Sci. Appl. Res., 3(2): 97-109.

El-Sayed KA, Soliman MG, Elfekky FA, Abou Ouf NA and Gad El-Karim RM (2017): Susceptibility of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails to infection with Schistosoma mansoni miracidia under the effect of sodium alginates as immunostimulants. Europ. J. Biomed. Pharmaceut. Sci., 4(5): 115-123.

El Deeb N and Bakry FA (2017): Antischistosomal and immuno-biochemical effect of miltefosine and plant extract on infected albino mice with Schistosoma mansoni. IJBPAS, 6(4): 676-690.

Bakry FA, El-Garhy M, Abd El-Atti M and Atwa M. (2017): Effects of the Extracts of Euphorbia pulcherima and Atriplex nummularia on the Infectivity of Schistosoma haematobium to Bulinus truncatus Snails. Adv. Biomech., 1(2): 34-41.

Bakry FA and Ismail SM (2017): Impact of Plant Extracts on Parasitological and Histological Parameters of Albino Mice Infected with Schistosoma mansoni. J. Biomaterials, 1(1): 10-18.

Ayoub M, Tadros M and Elbardicy S (2017): Echinochasmaus, new species (trematoda: echinostomatidae) from Egypt. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. 47:159-165.  

Yousif F, Ayoub M, Tadros M and Elbardicy S (2016): The first record of Centrocestus formosanus (Nishigori, 1924) (Digenea Heterophyidae) in Egypt Exp. Parasitol., 186: 56- 61.

Younes A, El-Sherief, H, Gawish F and Mahmoud M (2016): Experimental evaluation of Odonata nymph in the biocontrol of schistosomiasis intermediate hostsAsian. Pac. J. Trop. Biomed.,  6(12): 995-1000.

Taman A, El-Beshbishi S, El Bardicy S, Tadros M and el-Bialyc AM (2016)in vitro screening of BTP-iso on schistosoma mansoni and its intermediate host Biomphalaria alexandrina. Asian. Pas. J. Trop. Dis. 6: 930-935.

Shaldoum FM, Zayed KM, Azzam AM, Sharaf El-Din AT and Abou-Senna FM (2016)Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails as a Bio-Monitor for Water Pollution using Genotoxic Effect of Cuprous Oxide Nanoparticles and Copper Sulphate. Middle East J. Appl. Sci. 6: 189-197.

Shaldoum FM, Zayed KM, Azzam AM, Sharaf El-Din AT and Abou-Senna FM (2016): Immunological Effect of Cu2O Nanoparticles on Biomphalaria alexandrina Snail the Intermediate Host of Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt. Curr. Sci. Int. 5: 92-102.

Saad El-Din AH, Abu El-Einin H, Abdel-Gaber R and Mansour SM (2016): Diversity and comparative studies on Bulinus snails collected from two localities in Egypt. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. 46(3): 509-518.

Habib MR, Mohamed AH, Osman GY, Sharaf El-Din AT, Mossalem HS, Croll RP (2016): Biomphalaria alexandrina as a bioindicator of metal toxicity. Chemosphere, 157: 97-106.

Habib MR, Guo YH, Lv S, Gu WB, Li XH, Zhou XN (2016): Predicting the spatial distribution of Biomphalaria straminea, a potential intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, in China. Geospatial Health, 11(3): 453

EL-Shenawy NS, Loutfy N, Soliman MF, Tadros MM and Abd El-Azeez AA (2016): Metals bioaccumulation in two edible bivalves and health risk Assessment. Environ. Monit. Assess.188-139.

El-Khayat HMM, Gaber, SH, Abdel-Hamid H, Mahmoud KMA and Abu Taleb HMA (2016): Snails and fish as pollution biomarkers in Lake Manzala and laboratory. B: Lake Manzala fish. Int. Sci. Index Anim. Vet. Sci. 10(8): 485-497.

El-Khayat HMM, Abdel-Hamid H, Mahmoud KMA, Gaber, SH, Abu Taleb HMA and Flefel HE (2016): Snails and Fish as Pollution Biomarkers in Lake Manzala and Laboratory C: Laboratory Exposed Snails to Chemical Mixtures. Int. J. Biol. Biomol. Agri. Food Biotechnol. Eng. 10(110): 697-708.

Bakry FA, Eleiwa EM, Taha SA and Ismail SM (2016): Comparative toxicity of Paraquat herbicide and some plant extracts in Lymnaea natalensis snails. Toxicol. Indust. Health. 32(1): 143-153.

Bakry FA, El-Hommossany K, Abd El-Atti MS and Ismail SM (2016): Alteration in the fatty acid profile, antioxidant enzymes and protein pattern of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails exposed to the pesticides diazinon and profenfos. Toxicol. Indust. Health. 32(4): 666–676.

Abdel-Ghaffar F,  Ahmed AK,  Bakry F,  Rabei I and  Ibrahim A (2016): The Impact of Three Herbicides on Biological and Histological Aspects of Biomphalaria alexandrina, Intermediate Host of Schistosoma mansoni. Malacologia, 59(2):197-210.

Younes A, El-Sherief, H, Gawish F and Mahmoud M (2015): Potential of Hemianax ephippiger (Odonata-Aeshnidae) nymph as predator of Fasciola intermediate host, Lymnaea natalaensis. Asian. Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 5(7): 930-933.

Habib MR, Mohamed AH, Osman GY, Sharaf El-Din AT, Mossalem HS, Delgado N, Torres G, Rolón-Martínez S, Miller MW, Croll RP (2015): Histamine Immunoreactive Elements in the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems of the Snail, Biomphalaria spp., Intermediate Host for Schistosoma mansoni. Plos one, 10(6).

Gawish F and Abu EL-Einin HM (2015): Assessment of certain food preservatives on biological and biochemical parameters of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, as a biological model. Int. J. Recent Scient. Res. 6(1):2384-2389.

EL-Shenawy NS, Loutfy N, Soliman MF, Tadros MM and Abd El-Azeez AA (2015): Impaired behavior and changes in some biochemical markers of bivalve (Ruditapes decussates) due to Zinc toxicity. Toxicol. Environ. Chem. 97(5): 674-686, DOI: 10.1080/02772248.2015.1058381.

EL-Shenawy NS, Loutfy N, Soliman MF, Tadros MM and Abd El-Azeez AA (2015): Heavy Metals Bioaccumulation in Bivalves and Health Risk Assessment.   Environ. Monit. Assess. 188(3) DOI: 10.1007/s10661-016-5145-2.

El-Khayat HMM, Mahmoud KMA, Gaber, SH Abdel-Hamid H and Flefel HE (2015): Snails and Fish as Pollution Biomarkers in Lake Manzala and Laboratory. A: Lake Manzala Snails. Fish Aquat. J. 6 (4): 1-9.

El-Khayat HMM, Mahmoud KMA, Gaber, SH Abdel-Hamid H and Abu Taleb HMA (2015): Studies on the effect of pollution on lake Manzala ecosystem in Port-Said, Damietta and Dakahlia governorates, Egypt. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. (JESP), 45(1): 155 -168.

El-Khayat HMM, Mahmoud KMA, Abdel-Hamid H and Abu El Einin HM (2015): Applications of ISSR rDNA in detecting genetic variations in Lymnaea natalensis snails with focusing on the characterization of their collecting sites in certain Egyptian Governorates. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 14(16): 1354-1363.

El-Emam MA, Mahmoud MB, Abou-Elnour BM, Ibrahim WL and Youssef AA (2015): Impact of Double Infection of Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails with Schistosoma mansoni and Echinostoma liei on their Biological, Molecular, Immunological Histological and Parameters. J. Biol. Chem. Environ. Sci. 10(1): 131-145.

El-Emam M, Mahmoud S and Bayumy F (2015): Potential role of mefloquine (antimalarial drug) and methanol extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Sesbania sesban in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni Asian Pac. J. Trop. Dis. 5(8):608-613.

El-Beshbishi S, El Bardicy S, Tadros M, Ayoub M and Taman (2015): Spot light on the in vitro effect of artemisinin-naphthoquine phosphate on Schistosoma mansoni and its snail host Biomphalaria alexandrina. Acta Tropica, 141: 37-45.

Bakry FA, Ismail SM and Abd El-Atti MS (2015): Glyphosate herbicide induces genotoxic effect and physiological disturbances in Bulinus truncatus snails. Pest. Biochem. Physiol. 123:24–30.

Abou-Elnour BM, El-Emam MA, Mahmoud MB, Ibrahim WL and Youssef AA (2015): Alternations in parasitological, biochemical and molecular parameters of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, induced post exposure to the proposed snail biocontrol agent Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita nematode. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Dis. 5(12): 957-963

Yousif F, Ayoub M, Tadros M, EL Bardicy S and Abolarinwa S (2014): Description of two cercariae (An echinostome cercariae and a iphidiocercaria procured from Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Kruss) from Nigeria. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. 44(2): 373 – 380.

Vallejo D, Habib MR, Delgado N, Vaasjo LO, Croll RP, Miller MW (2014): Localization of tyrosine hydroxylase-like immunoreactivity in the nervous systems of Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria alexandrina, intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis. J. Comp. Neurol.  522(11): 2532-2552.

Mostafa OM, Mossa AT and El-Einin HM (2014): Heavy metal concentrations in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria alexandrina uninfected or infected with cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni and/or Echinostoma liei in Egypt: the potential use of this snail as a bioindicator of pollution. J. Helminthol. 28:1-6.

Saad El-Din A, Gawish F, Abu EL-Einin HM and Mansour SM (2014): Cytokines and mother sporocysts in susceptible and resistant Bulinus truncatus snails infected with Schistosoma haematobium. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. 44(2): 285 – 293.

Mossalem, SH and EL-Enin LG (2014): Evaluation of the Pesticide Emamectin and Methanol Extract of Wheat Bran against Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails, Their Hemocytes and Their Infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Asian Online Journal Publishing Group, 1(1): 5-10.

Helal EG, El- Dafrawy SM, Mohamed AH, Abou-El-Nour BM, Abu Taleb H and Ghoname SI (2014): Analysis of circulating haemocytes from Biomphalaria alexandrina following Schistosoma mansoni infection using flow cytometry. Egypt. J. Hospit. Med. 54: 41-53. 

Helal EG, El- Dafrawy SM, Mohamed AH, Abou-El-Nour BM and Ghoname SI (2014): Ultrastructural study on Biomphalaria alexandrina haemocytes infected with Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt and its correlation with nitric oxide level. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. 44: 113-124.

Ghoneimy EA, Abdel-Hamid H, Morad MH and Helal MA (2014): Penicillium canescens bioactive compound as a molluscicidal and antischistosomal biocontrol agent. Afr. J. Mycol. Biotechnol. 19(1): 1-23.

Fahmy SR, Abdel-Ghaffar F, Bakry FA and Sayed DA (2014): Ecotoxicological Effect of Sublethal Exposure to Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria alexandrina. Arch. Environ. Cont. Toxicol. 67:192–202.

El-Sayed KA, Saad El-Din A and Gad El-Karim RM (2014): A Comparative study of haemocytes from resistant and susceptible Lymnaea natalensis snails exposed to Fasciola gigantica miracidia. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. 44(3):653-60.

El Sayed KA, Saad El-Din AH and Gad El- Karim RM (2014): A Comparative study of hemocytes from resistant and susceptible Lymnaea natalenesis snails exposed to Fasciola gigantica miracidia. J. Egypt Soc. Parasitol. 44(3): 653-60.

Al-Sayed E, Abdel Hamid H, Abu El-Einin HM, Ali E and Fahmy Z (2014): Antiprotozoal and molluscicidal activities of pelargonium graveolens. Int. J. Pharm. 4(4): 209-214.

Al-Sayed E, Abdel Hamid H and Abu El-Einin HM (2014): Molluscicidal and antischistosomal activities of methanol extracts and isolated compounds from Eucalyptus globulus and Melaleuca styphelioides. Pharm. Biol. 52(6): 698-705.

Abdel-Hamid H, Ghoneimy EA, Abd-Elaziz MM and Helal MA (2014): Impact of Penicillium canescens bioactive compound on some biological, histological and ultrastructural parameters of Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus snails. Afr. J. Mycol. Biotec. 19 (2): 1-18.

Abdel-Hamid H and Mekawey AAI (2014): Biological and hematological responses of Biomphalaria alexandrina to mycobiosynthesis silver nanoparticles. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. 44(3): 626-636. 

Saad El-Din A, Gawish FA, Abu EL-Einin HM and Mansour SM (2013): Histopathological study on susceptible and resistant Bulinus truncatus snails to infection with Schistosoma haematobium. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 7(3): 125-131.

Ragheb M, El-Tayeb T, El-Eman M, Amer M and Bashter A (2013): Copper chlorophyllin and magnesium chlorophyllin as molluscicidal agents against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Asian Acad. Res. J. 1(16): 229-254.

Mostafa OM, Abu El-Einin HM and Mossa AT (2013):  Inorganic elements alteration in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails naturally parasitized with Echinostoma liei or Schistosoma mansoni. Sci. Int. 139-143

Yousif, F, Roushdy M and El-Dafrawy SM (2013): Schistosoma mansoni cercarial host location and infection under simulated natural conditions in Egypt. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. 43: 315-325.

Yousif F, Hafez, El Bardicy S, Tadros M and Abu Taleb H (2013): Experimental evaluation of Candonocypris novaezelandiae (Crustacea: Ostracoda) in the biocontrol of Schistosomiasis mansoni transmission. Asian. Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 3(4):267-72. doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60061-1.

Taha AH, Helmy H, EL-Dafrawy S M (2013): Shared antigens between Fasciola gigantica and its intermediate host, Lymnaea natalensis. Egypt. J. Zool. 59: 133-146.

Mossalem HS, Abdel-Hamid H and El-Shinnawy NA (2013): Impact of artemether on some histological and histochemical parameters in Biomphalaria alexandrina. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 7(31): 2220-2230.

Mossalem HS and Mossa AH (2013): Effect of rice bran extract on immunological and physiological parameters of Bulinus truncates snails infected with schistosoma haematobium. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 8(22): 621-628.

Mahmoud MB, El-Sayed KA and Sharaf El-Din AT (2013): Impact of the plant Millettia thonningii (Leguminoseea) on infection of Biophalaria alexandrina snails with Schistosoma mansoni and on their biochemical parameters. J. Biol. Chem. Environ. Sci. 1: 137-152.

Mahmoud MB, El-Sayed KA and Sharaf El-Din AT (2013): Fatty acids contents in Biophalaria alexandrina during the course of infection with Schistosoma mansoni. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. 43(2): 517-525. 

El-Sayed KA, Saad El-Din A and Gad El-Karim RM (2013): Histopathological studies on susceptible and resistant Lymnaea natalensis snails to Fasciola gigantica infection. J. Biol. Chem. Environ. Sci. 8(1): 341-360.

Bakry FA, Abd El-Atti M S and Ismail SM (2013): Effect of Zingiber officinal (ginger) on electrophoresis analysis and biochemical aspects of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Int. J. Sci. Eng. 4(11): 420-426

Abdel-Ghaffar F, Bakry FA and Taha SA (2013): Impact of plant extracts as molluscicides agent against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and Schistosoma mansoni. Int. J. Sci. Eng. 4(11): 420-426

Yousif F, Wassel G, Boulos L, Labib T, Mahmoud K, El-Hallouty S, El Bardicy S, Mahmoud S, Ramzy F, Gohar L, El-Manawaty M, El-Gendy M, Fayad W, and El-Menshawi B (2012): Contribution to in vitro screening of Egyptian plants for schistosomicidal activity. Pharm. Biol. 50(6): 732-739.

Sharaf El-Din AT, El-Sayed KA, Abdel-Hamid H and Mahmoud MB (2012): Neurotoxic Effect of Bayluscide, Selecron and Ethanolic Extract of Anagalis arvensis on the Cerebral Ganglia of Biomphalaria alexandrina Snail. Int. J. Rec. Sci. Res. 3(6): 530-536.

Mohamed AM, El-Emam MA, Osman GY, Abdel-Hamid H and Ali REM (2012): Effect of Basudin, Selecron and the phytoalkaloid Colchicine (pesticides) on biological and molecular parameters of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Pest. Biochem. Physiol. 102: 68–78.

Mohamed AM, El-Emam MA, Osman GY, Abdel-Hamid H and Ali REM (2012): Biological and biochemical responses of infected Biomphalaria alexandrina snails with Schistosoma mansoni post exposure to the pesticides Basudin and Selecron and the phytoalkaloid Colchicine. J. Evol. Biol. Res. 4 (2): 24-32.

Mohamed AH, Sharaf El-Din AT, Mohamed AM and Habib MR (2012): Relationship between genetic variability and susceptibility of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails to Schistosoma mansoni infection. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 107(3): 326-337.

Melek FR, Tadros MM, Yousif F, Selim MA, Hassan MH (2012): Screening of marine extracts for schistosomicidal activity in vitro. Isolation of the triterpene glycosides echinosides A and B with potential activity from the sea cucumbers Actinopyga echinites and Holothuria polii. Pharm. Biol. 50: 490-496.

El Bardicy S, Yousif F, El- Sayed I, Haemers A, Pieters L and Augustyns K (2012): Schistosomicidal and molluscicidal activities of aminoalkylamino substituted neo- and norneocryptolepine derivatives. J. Pharm. Biol. 50(2): 134-140.

Bakry FA, El-Hommossany K and Mossalem H (2012): Impact of Azardiracta indica Extract on Immunological and Physiological Parameters of Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails. Europ. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci. 16(3): 133-143.

Bakry FA, Abdelsalam HA, Mahmoud MB and Hamdi SAH (2012): Influence of Atrazine and Roundup pesticides on biochemical and molecular aspects of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Pest. Biochem. Physiol. 104: 9–18.

Abu El-Einin HM, Mantawy M and Mossalem HS (2012): Neurotransmitters in Schistosome snail’s vector. World Acad. Sci. Eng. Technol. 69: 332-338.

Abou Elseoud SM, Abdel Fattah NS, Ezz El Din H M, Abdel Al H, Mossalem HS and Elleboudy N (2012): Potential correlation between carboxylic acid metabolites in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails after exposure to Schistosoma mansoni infection. Korean J. Parasitol. 50(2): 119-126.

Sharaf El-Din, AT, El-Sayed KA and Mahmoud MB (2011): Effect of ethanolic extract of Dalbergia sissoo plant parts on Biomphalaria alexandrina snail, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. J. Evol. Biol. Res. (7): 95-100.

Shaldoum F, El-Sagher KH and Abou-Senna F (2011): Blood Picture of Patients undergoing Hemodialysis and/ or Suffering from Hepatitis C Virus. Egypt. J. Med. Sci.1: 32.

Rawi SM, Bakry FA and Al-Hazmi MA (2011): Biochemical and histopathological effect of formulated and non-formulated plant extracts on Spodoptera littoralis larvae. Int. Res. J. Plant Sci. 2(4): 107-118.

Mostafa OM and EL-Dafrawy SM (2011): Susceptibility of Biomphalaria Spp. To infection with Schistosoma mansoni in sympatric and allopatric combinations with observations on the genetic variability between snails. Vet. Parasitol. 180: 226-231.

Mohamed AM, Sharaf El-Din AT, Mohamed AH and Habib MR (2011): Identification of various Biomphalaria alexandrina strains collected from five Egyptian governorates using RAPD and species-specific PCR techniques. Amer. J. Mol. Biol. 1: 17-25.

Mohamed AH, Sharaf El-Din AT, Mohamed AM and Habib MR (2011):  Tissue responses exhibited by Biomphalaria alexandrina snails from different Egyptian localities following Schistosoma mansoni exposure. Exp. Parasitol. 127: 789–794.

Mahmoud MB, Ibrahim WL, Abou El-Nour BM, El-Emam MA and Youssef AA (2011): Biological and biochemical parameters of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails exposed to the plants Datura Stramonium and Sebania sesban as water suspensions of their dry powder. Perst. Biochem. Physiol. 99:96-104.

El-Khayat HMM and Abdel-Hamid H (2011): Studies on sympatric and allopatric combinations of Egyptian Biomphalaria alexandrina and Schistosoma mansoni natural populations. New Egypt J. Med., 45 (4): 59-70.

El-Hommossany K and El-Sherbini SA (2011): Impact of the Photosensitizers Hematoporphyrin Coated Gold Nanoparticles on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. J. Animal Sci. 1(2): 54-60.

El Sayed KA, Mahmoud M B and Mossalem HS (2011): Cryptostegia Grandiflora affecting compatibility of Biomphalaria alexandrina and Biomphalaria galabrata to infection with Schistosoma mansoni with emphasis on some hematological effects. Aust. J. Basic Appl. Sci. 5(12): 3357-3365.

Bakry FA, Mohamed RT and Hasheesh WS (2011): Impact of methanol extract of Adenium obesum plant on some biochemical and biological parameters of Bulinus truncatus snails. J. Evol. Biol. Res. 3(6): 87-94.

Bakry FA, Mohamed RT and El-Hommossany K (2011): Biological and biochemical responses of Biomphalaria alexandrina to some extracts of the plants Solanum siniacum and Artemisia judaica L. Pest. Biochem. Physiol. 99: 174–180.

Bakry FA, Hasheesh WA and Hamdi SAH (2011): Biological, biochemical, and molecular parameters of Helisoma duryi snails exposed to the pesticides Malathion and Deltamethrin. Pest. Biochem. Physiol. 101: 86–92.

Bakry FA and Mohamed RT (2011): Impact of Euphorbia milii latex on infectivity of Schistosoma mansoni larval stages to their hosts. J.  Evol. Biol. Res. 3(7): 101-107.

Bakry FA and El Garhy MF (2011): Comparative study of the karyotypes and electrophoretic patterns of Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus and the ova of their corresponding trematode hosts. J. Evol. Biol. Res. 3(3): 22-28.

Yousif F, Ibrahim A, El Bardicy S, Sleem S and Ayoub M (2010): Morphology of New Eleven Cercariae Procured from Melanoides tuberculata Snails in Egypt. Aust. J. Basic Appl. Sci. 4(6): 1482-1494.

Sharaf El-Din AT, Mohamed AH, Mohamed AM, El-Hommossany KM and Habib MR (2010): Relationship between Some Heavy Metals and Schistosoma mansoni Infection Rates in Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails Collected from Different Egyptian Localities. World Appl. Sci. J. 11: 38-43.

Shaldoum F, El-Sagher KH and Abou-Senna F (2010): Complement Patients (C3 and C4) in patients with Hemodialysis and/ or Hepatitis C Virus. Egypt. J. Med. Sci. 2: 32.

Rabia I, Nagy F, Aly E, Mohamed A, EL-Assal F and El-Amir A (2010): Effect of treatment with antifibrotic drugs in combination with PZQ in immunized Schistosoma mansoni infected murine model. J. Amer. Sci. 6(5) .208-216.

Abou Elseoud SM, Abdel Fattah NS, Ezz El Din H M, Abdel Al H, Mossalem HS and Elleboudy N (2010): Carboxylic acids as biomarkers of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Korean J. Parasitol. 48(2): 127 – 132.