Pharmacology Department

  • Vision
  • Mission
  • Head of the Department
  • Staff Members
  • Research field
  • Acheivments
  • Techniques
  • Structure
  • Facilities
  • Services Scope
  • Projects
  • Thesis
  • Awards
  • Publications

To provide a distinctive level in scientific research through cutting-edge research and to fulfill the technological and scientific research needs of pharmaceutical industries, governmental and community requirements. To be prestigious locally, nationally and internationally, as a department of a prestigious institution, in the research and development of health products.

To promote research and development to investigate current and newly introduced compounds/drugs for better management of endemic diseases. To prepare distinguished, highly qualified and specialized pharmacologists equipped with the knowledge, skills and values required to perform scientific research at the highest international standards.

Head of Department

Prof. Dr./ Abdel Nasser A. Sabra. 

E-mail:   [email protected]

Former Heads of Department

Late Prof. Dr./ Aisha Metwally: Founder-1995.

Prof. Dr./ Sanaa Botros: 1995-2008.

Late Prof. Dr./ Fatma Ebeid: 2008-2009.

Prof. Dr./ Madiha R. Mahmoud: 2009-2010.

Prof. Dr/ Naglaa M. El-Lakkany 2010-2019.

Prof. Dr/ Sayed Hassan Seif el-Din 2019-2022

Staff Members 

Emeritus Prof. Dr./ Sanaa Sabet Botros.

Prof. Dr./ Naglaa M. El-Lakkany.

Prof. Dr/ Sayed Hassan Seif el-Din.

Prof. Dr./ Abdel Nasser A. Sabra.

Researcher/ Walaa Hamido El-Sayed.

Researcher/ Maha Badr Mohamed.

Researcher/ Rania A. khalaf.

Assistant Researcher/ Ahmed Said Hendawy.

Pharmacist/ Abeer Ali Ebrahim El-Nagar.

Pharmacist/ Hadeel Hesham Mohamed Elkattan.

Pharmacist/ Nourhan Mohamed Reffat Kamar.

Pharmacist/ Sarah El-Rashdy Mostafa.

Pharmacist/ Amira Said Hendawy.

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Research staff at the Pharmacology Department have been carrying out research work on efficacy/resistance of antischistosomal drugs since > 30 years, at the national and international levels, including:

  • The in vitro testing of potential antischistosomal activity (EC50).
  • In vivo testing of vitro actives using whole animal experimentation where schistosomiasis infected animals is used to study parasitological criteria of cure.
  • Inter-relation between antischistosomals and the immunological status of the host.
  • Resistance to praziquantel treatment and to re-infection after cure as emerging problems.
  • The use of new formulations of the antischistosomal drug “praziquantel” in a way to overcome its drawbacks.

In this respect, we have successfully completed and running collaborative research projects with national and international agencies e.g. UNEP, US-AID, US-NIH, EU, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Swiss Tropical Institute (STI), Switzerland, Swedish International Cooperation Development Agency (SIDA) and European commision (FP7 health programme).

Research staff at the Pharmacology Department have also been carrying out research work on pharmacodynamics/pharmacokinetics of antischistosomal and hepatoprotective drugs including:

  • Assessment of drug bioavailability/pharmacokinetics using HPLC.
  • Acute and chronic toxicity studies.
  • Assessment of hepatic drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes.
  • Conventional liver functions and assessment of liver fibrotic biomarkers.
  • Research for new therapeutic options for treating NAFLD/NASH.
  • Cytotoxicity assays of drugs/compounds using isolated and cultured primary hepatocytes.
  • Determination of drug/herb-drug interactions using cytochrome-P450 isoforms.
  • Examination of the antifibrotic potential of drugs/compounds using isolated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and cultured HSC-T6 cell line.
  • Characterization of ADME–Tox profiles of compounds through in vitro and in vivo approaches to predict early druggability of newly introduced drug candidates throughout discovery and development processes.

MAIN ACHEIVMENTS

  • Reducing the cost of schistosomiasis treatment and hence socioeconomic needs of the country, the local Egyptian brand of the antischistosomal drug praziquantel “Distocide” has been examined and was found to possess equal efficacy and bioavailability to that of the foreign imported one “Biltricide”.
  • Cocktails of antischistosomals in reduced doses and antischistosomals with vaccines led to enhanced drug antischistosomal efficacy and lessened schistosomiasis morbidity.
  • Avoiding set back of schistosomaiasis control measures not only at the level of Egypt but also at the African level, lack of evidence for an antischistosomal activity of Mirazid; an Egyptian antischistosomal drug newly introduced to Arab and African countries has been demonstrated.
  • Because the international scientific community has been left with one antibilharzial drug “praziquantel”, the phenomenon of resistance to this only available drug in African countries (Egypt, Cameroon and Senegal), and the identification in the field of schistosome isolates that possess variable sensitivity to the drug have been demonstrated, urging the pharmaceutical industry to search for new chemotherapeutic alternatives and WHO to monitor for the response to this sole antischistosomal on a regular systematic basis.
  • For the first time, the efficacy of the group of acyclic nucleotide analogues 9-(S)[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy) propyl] adenine [(S)-HPMPA] against a wide range of schistosome life cycle specially the schistosome egg, the main cause of schistosomiasis  morbidity, has been revealed.
  • The efficacy of the antimalarial drugs “artemether, mefloquine and halofantrine” as antischistosomals against not only the immature stages of the Egyptian strain of mansoni but also the mature ones.
  • Antipyrine clearance using HPLC expressed the least hepatic impairment compared to conventional liver functions.
  • Miracidial response to antischistosomal drugs has been recommended as a simple inexpensive quick biological test for efficacy/resistance to antischistosomal drugs.
  • Advice to the scientific community against the use of yellow pills (Dimethyl Diphenyl Bicarboxylate; DDB) popularly used by all viral hepatitis patients and claimed to improve liver functions markedly; liver functions of viral hepatitis patients under this treatment were not genuinely improved using the sensitive antipyrine clearance.
  • Efficacy of AT1-receptor blockers (losartan) and silymarin against mansoni -induced liver fibrosis was recommended.
  • Acheivments

RUNNING TECHNIQUES

In vitro evaluation of antischistosomal efficacy:

  • The primarily screen is conducted using the in vitro worm killing.
  • Estimation of compound EC50 using in vitro actives in the primarily screen.

In vivo evaluation of antischistosomal efficacy:

  • In vivo evaluation of antischistosomal activity including worm burden, sex distribution, tissue egg load and percentage egg developmental stages and ED50

Toxicity studies:

  • In vitro cytotoxicity assays on primary isolated hepatocytes and different cell lines (using MTT & SRB).
  • Conventional toxicity testing (LD16, LD50 and LD84 estimation).

Pharmacodynamics of drugs:

  • Evaluation of drug metabolizing enzyme activities.
  • Biochemical and immunological aspects of drugs.
  • Evaluation of the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of drugs/compounds.
  • Evaluation of the antifibrotic effects of drugs.
  • Safety of drugs used in liver diseases (liver and kidney function tests).

Pharmacokinetic studies:

  • Pharmacokinetics of antischistosomal drugs (e.g. Praziquantel).
  • Evaluation of the bioavailability of drugs commonly prescribed to patients with chronic liver disease (e.g. pracetamol).
  • Determination of hepatic metabolic function using antipyrine clearance (APC).

DEPARTMENT STRUCTURE AND FACILITIES

One main big and two small laboratories are equipped with basic facilities:

Electronic balances, water baths, microscopes, centrifuges, oven, spectrophotometers, autoclave, water distillator, high-speed centrifuge, pumping machines, liquid nitrogen, ELISA reader, tissue homogenizers, sonicator, three vertical deep freezers (-30°C & -80 °C), two laminar flow, two CO2 incubator, cooling centrifuge, inverted microscope and two HPLC, plethysmometer and hot cold plate. Since 2009, Pharmacology Department has established a new unit (in place of one small laboratory) under the name “Drug Evaluation and Discovery Unit (DEDU)” (under supervision of Prof. Sanaa Botros). Pharmacology Department and its unit has been assigned (2011) by WHO-ANDI an excellence center on antitrematodal R&D.

RAINING FACILITIES

  • Evaluation of antischistosomal activity in vitro and in vivo in mansoni and S. haematobium infected animals.
  • Determination of cardinal parameters of acute toxicity (ED16, ED50 & ED84) for new drugs/compounds.
  • Determination of short chronic and chronic toxicity and examination of blood biochemical changes.
  • Determination of drug metabolizing enzyme (CYP450 and cyt b5) activities.
  • Evaluation of drugs bioavailability using HPLC and assessment of pharmacokinetic parameters.
  • Assessment of the antioxidant enzymes.
  • Evaluation of hepatic metabolic functional status in patients with chronic liver disease using antipyrine clearance.
  • In vitro cytotoxicity assays on primary isolated hepatocytes and different cell lines (using MTT & SRB).

SCOPE OF SERVICES

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of antischistosomal efficacy:

  1. In vitro culture of worms and drug testing
  2. Animal perfusion and worm recovery (ED50 estimation)
  3. Tissue egg count
  4. Percentage egg developmental stages (Oogram pattern)

Toxicity studies:

  1. In vitro cytotoxicity assays on primary isolated hepatocytes and different cell lines (using MTT & SRB).
  2. Acute toxicity (LD16, LD50 and LD84 estimation).
  3. Subchronic and chronic toxicity.

Pharmacodynamics of drugs:

  1. Determination of hepatic drug metabolism in animals by measuring drug metabolizing enzyme activities.
  2. Biochemical and immunological aspects of drugs.
  3. Evaluation of the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of drugs/compounds.
  4. Evaluation of the antifibrotic effect of some drugs and measurement of tissue markers of liver fibrosis.
  5. Safety of drugs used in liver diseases (liver and kidney function tests).

Pharmacokinetic studies

  1. Pharmacokinetics of antischistosomal drugs.
  2. Evaluation of the bioavailability of drugs commonly prescribed to patients with chronic liver disease.
  3. Determination of hepatic metabolic function using antipyrine clearance (APC).

A- External Research Projects: 

1- Title: Evaluation of praziquantel reduction in dosage using present formulations of agents, which modify its bioavailability.
Financed Agency: USAID.  Duration: 1991-1994.
Principal investigator: late Prof. Dr. Aisha  A. Metwally. 

2- Title: Development of drug formulation for children.
Financed Agency: USAID.  Duration: 1992-1995.
Principal investigator: late Prof. Dr. Aisha  A. Metwally.

3- Title: Praziquantel resistance to treatment; an emerging problem.
Financed Agency: NIH, USA.  Duration:  1999 – 2003.
Principal investigator: Prof. Dr. Sanaa Sabet Botros.

4- Title: The effect of combination of antischistosomal and immuno – modulator on the parasitological responses in murine schistosomiasis mansoni.
Financed Agency: Academy of Scientific Research in Egypt & Checz
Duration: January 2001- 2003.
Principal investigator: Prof. Dr. Sanaa Sabet Botros.

5- Title: Praziquantel resistance in African schistosomiasis.
Financed Agency: European Commission.  Duration:  2001- 2004.
Principal investigator: Prof. Dr. Sanaa Sabet Botros. 

6- Title: Development of new compounds with effect on Schistosomiasis (bilharzia)”.
Financed Agency: SIDA.    Duration: 2009 – 2012.
Principal investigador: Prof. Dr. Sanaa Sabet Botros. 

7- Title:  Parasite-specific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors to target Neglected Parasitic Diseases. (Project FP7 acronym: PDE4NPD).    Duration: 2014 – 2017.
Principal investigador: Prof. Dr. Sanaa Sabet Botros

B- Internal Research Projects Financed by TBRI:

1- Project No.  44 A  (1994- 1996).
Title:  Studies of the effect of new anti-inflammatory drug on arachidonic acid metabolites in murine schistosomiasis mansoni.
Principal investigator: Prof. Dr. Aisha  A. Metwally

2- Project No. 52 A (1994 – 1997)
Title: Studies of some factors, which may affect the bioavailability of praziquantel in experimental animals.
Principal investigator: late Prof. Dr. Aisha A. Metwally.

3- Project No. 63 A (1997 – 2000)
Title: Effect of Praziquantel on drug-metabolizing enzymes in experimental S. mansoni.
Principal investigator: Prof. Dr. Fatma Abdel-Latif Ebeid.

4- Project No. 67 A (1998 – 2001).
Title: Tolerance/resistance to praziquantel and how to deal with from the Pharmacological point of view.
Principal investigator: Prof. Dr. Sanaa Sabet Botros. 

5- Project No. 73 A (2001- 2003). 
Title: Efficacy of praziquantel in different formulation either alone or in addition to immunomodulator in mice infected with praziquantel resistance strain.
Principal investigador: Prof. Dr. Sanaa Sabet Botros.

6- Project No. 70 A (2000 – 2005).
Title: Study of some pharmacological and parasitological aspects of the antioxidants β-carotene and acetylcysteine with or without praziquantel therapy on murine schistosomiasis mansoni.
Principal investigator: Prof. Dr. Fatma Abdel Latif Ebeid.

7- Project No.76 A (2002-2007).
Title: Assessment of the state of liver damage and hepatic metabolic function using antipyrine clearance in patients with different stages of chronic liver disease.
Principal investigator: Prof. Dr. Sanaa Sabet Botros

8- Project No. 77 A (2005- 2007).
Title: Screening for potential antischistosomal and hepatoprotective activities of the plants Dichrostachys cineria, Calliandra haematoceria and Olea europaea in experimental animals.
Principal investigator: Prof. Dr. Fatma Abdel Latif Ebeid. 

9- Project No.79 M (2005- 2010). 
Title:  Evaluation of the antischistosomsal  activity of plants belonging to families Polygonaceae, Verbeneceae and Cucurbitaceae in murine schistosomiasis.
Principal investigator:  Prof. Dr. Madiha R Mahmoud.

10- Project No. 82 A (2006- 2011). 
Title: Evaluation of antifibrotic and antioxidant drugs with or without praziquantel in murine schistosomiasis mansoni.
Principal investigator: Prof. Dr. Fatma Abdel Latif Ebeid. 

11- Project No. 83 A (2009-2018).
Title: Pharmacokinetic of drugs commonly used by patients with chronic liver disease.
Principal investigator: Prof. Dr. Sanaa Sabet Botros.

12- Project No. 95 A (2010-2018). 
Title:
Evaluation of the efficacy of insulin-sensitizing and lipid lowering agents with ontioxidants in management of experimental non-alcholic fatty liver disease.
Principal investigator: Prof. Dr. Fatma Abdel Latif Ebeid.

13- Project No. 99 A (2012- until now). 
Title
Possible antifibrotic effects of some natural and synthetic compounds against experimental hepatic fibrogenesis: in vitro and in vivo study.
Principal investigator: Prof. Dr. Naglaa Mohamed El-Lakkany.

14- Project No. 101 A (March 2013-until now). 
Title
: Possible anti-inflammatory activity of certain natural products against hepatic inflammation in experimental animals and evaluation of their safety in hepatocyte cultures.
Principal investigator: Prof. Dr. Sayed Hassan Seif el-Din.

15- Project No. 116 A (January 2018)
Title:
Pharmacodynamics of Synriam alone and in combination with a cytochrome P450 inhibitor (ketoconazole) against juvenile and mature schistosomiasis in experimental animals.
Principal investigator: Prof. Dr. Abdel- Nasser Abdel- Aal Sabra.

16- Project No. 117 A (Februray 2018)
Title
: Impact of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) production adjustment using gut microbiota alone or in combination with metformin on modulation of autophagy and insulin resistance in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease-induced rats.
Principal investigator: Prof. Dr. Sayed Hassan Seif el-Din.

17- Project No. 124 A (September 2018).
Potential modulating effects of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) on liver fibrosis in NAFLD diabetic rats.
Principal investigator: Prof. Dr. Naglaa Mohamed El-Lakkany.

18- Project No.     (February 2022).
Potential therapeutic implications of some drugs (natural and synthetic) on Gut-Liver-Brain axis disturbances in rats with hepatic encephalopathy.
Principal investigatorDr. Maha Badr.

M.Sc. Thesis

  1. In vitro study of the influence of acetaminophen on the response of the cardiovascular system to catecholamines. Dr/ Sanaa S. Botros (1976).
  2. The effect of antibilharzial drugs on protein metabolism. Dr/ Fatma A. Ebeid (1980).
  3. The Possible involvement of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor in the therapy of schistosomiasis mansoni. Dr/ Madiha R. Mahmoud (1989).
  4. Studies of some factors which may affect the blood level of praziquantel in experimental animals. Dr/ Naglaa M. El-Lakkany (1997).
  5. Effects of praziquantel on some aspects of drug-metabolizing capacity in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. Dr/ Sayed H. Seif el-Din (1999).
  6. Effect of combined immunotherapy and chemotherapy on susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice. Dr./ Abdel-Nasser A. Sabra (1999).
  7. Assessment of hepatic metabolic function in patients with chronic liver disease. Res. / Rania Khalaf Abdel-Kader (2006).
  8. Possible protective effects of losartan and Silymarin on liver fibrosis in murine Schistosoma mansoni. Res./ Walaa Hamido El-Sayed (2010).
  9. Effect of an insulin sensitizer agent, lipid lowering agent and an antioxidant on non-alcoholic Fatty Liver in rats. Pharmacist/ Abeer Ali Ebrahium EL-Naggar (2015).
  10. Pharmacokinetic study of paracetamol alone or in combination with caffeine in patients with chronic liver disease. Res./ Ahmed Said Hendawy (2016).
  11. Effect of certain compounds with possible anti-inflammatory activity on hepatic metabolizing enzymes in experimental animals. Res./ Maha Badr Mohamed (2016).
  12. Investigation of potential impact of gossypol on the antitumor efficacy of ponatinib on experimental solid Ehrlich carcinoma and some human liver/gastrointestinal cancer cell lines. Pharmacist/ Hadeel Hesham (2022).

Ph.D. Thesis

  1. Immunosuppressive ability of antischistosomal drugs in experimental animals. Dr/ Sanaa S. Botros (1980).
  2. Studies on the effect of treatment on amino acid metabolism in experimental schistosomiasis. Dr/ Fatma A. Ebeid (1984).
  3. Studies of the effect of a new anti-inflammatory drug on the liver arachidonic acid metabolites in schistosomiasis mansoni. Dr/ Madiha R. Mahmoud (1997).
  4. Effect of immunotherapy as adjuvant on the response to praziquantel treatment in mice infected with a Schistosoma mansoni-resistant isolate. Dr/ Naglaa M. El-Lakkany (2003).
  5. Evaluation of concerted usage of antioxidants and praziquantel in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. Dr/ Sayed H. Seif el-Din (2003).
  6. Influence of therapeutic pressure of praziquantel quantitatively and qualitatively on further selection of insusceptible Schistosoma mansoni isolates in mice. Dr/ Abdel-Nasser A. Sabra (2003).
  7. Influence of hepatotoxic compounds on the molecular changes as well as DNA repairing mechanisms in hepatocytes./ Rania Khalaf Abdel-Kader (2014).
  8. Potential antifibrotic effects of some natural compounds against experimental hepatic fibrogenesis. / Walaa Hamido El-Maadawy (2017).
  9. Effect of lactobacillus/metronidazole alone or in combination with metformin in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver: possible modulation of gut short chain fatty acids and autophagy. / Maha Badr (2020).
  10. Potential modulatory effect of vildagliptin on experimentally induced high fat diet-liver fibrosis in diabetic rats./ Ahmed Said Hendawy (2022).

Prof. Dr./ Sanaa Sabet Botros:
Theodor Bilharz Research Institute Appreciation Award (2014).

Prof. Dr./ Naglaa Mohamed El-Lakkany:
The Late Professor Sawsan Omran’s Award for The Best Research Article for the Year 2011.
Theodor Bilharz Research Institute Excellence Award (2015).

Prof. Dr./ Sayed Hassan Seif el-Din
The Late Professor Sawsan Omran’s Award for The Best Research Article for the Year 2012.
Theodor Bilharz Research Institute Excellence Award (2016).

Res./ Walaa Hamido El-Maadawy
Theodor Bilharz Research Institute Encouragement Award (2021).

Res./ Maha Badr
Theodor Bilharz Research Institute Best Research Article extracted from PhD thesis Award for the Year (2021).

  1. Saber MA, Khayyal MT, Saleh S, Ebeid FA (1979). Serum glycoprotein, lipoprotein and protein patterns in schistosomiasis mansoni, before and after therapy. Arab J Lab Med, 5: 47-55.
  2. Khayyal MT, Saleh S, Saber MA, Ebeid FA (1980). A study on the changes in amino acid composition of serum in S. mansoni-infected mice before and after treatment with Oxamniquine and Tartar Emetic. Egypt J Bilh, 7: 61-71.
  3. Botros SS, Metwally AA, Khayyal MT (1981). Effect of praziquantel on cholinesterase activity in different tissues in hamsters. J Egypt Med Assoc, 64: 381-388.
  4. Metwally AA, Botros SS, Khayyal MT (1981). Effect of praziquantel on plasma free and esterified cholesterol in experimental schistosomiasis J Egypt Med Assoc, 64: 389-395.
  5. Ghaleb HA, El-Gowhary NM, Tawfik HN, El-Adin AZ, Shaker ZA, Botros SS (1982). Effect of oxamniquine on the experimentally induced pulmonary granuloma. I- In unsensitized mice. J Egypt Soc Pharmacol Exp Ther, 3: 485-519.
  6. Ghaleb HA, El-Gowhary NM, Tawfik HN, El-Adin AZ, Shaker ZA, Botros SS (1982). Effect of oxamniquine on the experimentally induced pulmonary granuloma. I- In sensitized mice. J Egypt Soc Pharmacol Exp Ther, 3: 520-536.
  7. Botros SS, Metwally AA, Khayyal MT (1984). The immunological aspect of praziquantel in unsensitized mice with experimentally induced pulmonary granuloma. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg, 78: 569-572.
  8. Metwally AA, Botros SS, Roushdy MZ, Khayyal MT (1984). Prophylactic activity of praziquantel in experimental schistosomiasis mansoni. J Egypt Med Assoc, 67(3): 35-46.
  9. Botros SS, El-Badrawy N, El-Raziky EH (1986). Subcutaneous implantation of the spleen as a new technique for experimental induction of hepatic mansoni egg granuloma. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg, 80: 515-516.
  10. Botros SS, El-Badrawy N, Metwally AA, Khayyal MT (1986). Study of some immunopharmacological properties of praziquantel in experimental schistosomiasis mansoni. Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 80(2): 189-196.
  11. El-Emam MA, Shoeb HA, Ebeid FA, Rafai LA (1986). Snail control by calendula micrantha officinalis. J Egypt Soc Parasit, 16: 563-571.
  12. El-Gohary N, Bahgat M, Selim M, Botros SS, Salem D, Abdel-Rahman A (1987). Effect of chronic medication with verapamil on glucose tolerance in experimental animals. Med J Cairo Univ, 55(1): 149-153.
  13. Ebeid FA, Botros SS, Metwally AA (1987). Effect of specific chemotherapy on serum enzymes in patients with schistosomiasis. J Egypt Med Assoc, 70(5): 321-330.
  14. Hassanein HI, Nagy FM, Herbage D, Botros SS, El-Badrawy N M (1987). Changes in the composition of liver collagen (Type I and II) in murine schistosomiasis mansoni infection. Med Sci Res, 15:1413-1414.
  15. Botros SS, Metwally AA, Khayyal MT (1988). Comparative effect of tiaprofenic acid and piroxicam alone and as adjuvant to antibilharzial therapy on pulmonary granuloma. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg, 10(5): 601-607.
  16. El-Badrawy NM, Hassanein HI, Botros SS, Nagy FM, Abdallah NM, Herbage D (1988). Effect of praziquantel on hepatic fibrosis in experimental schistosomiasis mansoni. Exp Molec Pathol, 49:151-160.
  17. Metwally AA, El-Sayed B, Hamada F, Botros SS (1988). Effect of praziquantel–oxamniquine combination on mansoni and brain catecholamine content in mice. El-Azhar J Pharm Sci, 8:1-12.
  18. Botros SS, Francis M, Meleka H, Abdel-Naby A, El-Garem A, Madkour K (1988). Short term chronic toxicities of oltipraz versus tartar emetic in normal and schistosomiasis mansoni infected mice. Egypt J Bilh, 10(2): 229-247.
  19. Botros S, Soliman A, El-Gowhary N, Selim M, Guirgis N (1989). Effect of combined low dose praziquantel and oxamniquine on different stages of schistosome maturity. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg, 83: 86-89.
  20. El-Emam MA, Ebeid FA (1989). Effect of Schistosoma mansoni starvation and molluscicides on acid aminotransferases and protein in tissues and hemolymph of the snail Biomphalaria alexandrina. Helminthologia, 26: 155-161.
  21. Shaheen AA, Ebeid FA, Fahim AT (1989). Effect of praziquantel on some aspects of carbohydrates metabolism in mice infected with mansoni. Pharmacol Res, 21: 263-270.
  22. Shaheen AA, Ebeid FA (1989). Effect of praziquantel treatment on serum protein pattern, serum ceruloplasmin and blood glutathione in healthy and Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. Egypt Med J, 6: 505-513.
  23. Ebeid FA, Botros SS, Metwally AA (1989). Praziquantel did not exhibit hepatotoxicity in a study with isolated hepatocytes. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg, 84: 262-264.
  24. Meleka H, Botros SS, Aboul-Ela F, Francis M, Abdel-Naby A, El-Garem AA, Madkour MK (1989). Comparative acute toxicities of oltipraz and tartar emetic in normal and Schistosoma mansoni infected mice. Med J Cairo Univ, 57(2): 277-292.
  25. Botros SS, Hassan SI, El-Nahal HM, Azab ME, Shaker ZA, El-Garem A (1989). Levamisole restored the compromised state of immunity after specific chemotherapy in experimental Schistosoma mansoni. Immunopharmacol & Immunotoxicol, 11(4): 611-629.
  26. Botros SS, Abul-Ela F, Ebeid FA, Metwally AA (1990). Hepatocyte nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid changes after repeated administration of oxamniquuine and amoscanate in experimental schistosomiasis mansoni. Med J Cairo Univ, 58(2): 17-26.
  27. Botros SS (1990). Effect of Praziquantel versus hycanthone on deoxyribonucleic acid content of hepatocytes in murine Schistosoma mansoni. Pharmacol Res, 22: 219-229.
  28. Metwally A, Janku I, Kemper F, Khayyal M, Ebeid F, Botros S (1990). Effect of Schistosomiasis infection on the clearance of phenazone (Antipyrine) in mice. Arzneim Forsch/Drug Res, 40(1): 206-209.
  29. Hassan SI, Botros SS, El-Nahal HM, Azab ME, Shaker ZA, El-Garem A (1990). Effect of specific chemotherapy on the immune response and resistance to reinfection in experimental Schistosoma mansoni. Int J Immunopharmacol, 12(2): 207-215.
  30. Botros SS, Salama SH, Estafan MY, Gomaa NE, Metwally AA, Ebeid FA (1990). Relationship between schistosomicidal drug efficacy, gonadal steroid hormonal changes and state of disease immunopathology in murine schistosomiasis mansoni. Pharmacol Res, 22(3):359-370.
  31. Khayyal MT, Saleh S, Metwally AA, Botros SS, Mahmoud MR (1991). ACE activity in experimental schistosomiasis under the influence of praziquantel and/or captopril. Exp Parasitol, 73: 117-126.
  32. Ebeid FA, El-Amin S (1991). An experimental trial of three new synthetic compounds in schistosomiasis mansoni. Egypt J Bilh, 13: 131-138.
  33. El-Gindy H, Rawi SH, Abd-El-Kader A, Ebeid FA (1991). A comparative effect of different pesticides on the transaminases activities in hemolymph of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. J Egypt Ger Soc Zool, 22:131-138.
  34. El-Badrawy NM, Abdel-Hadi AM, Voss B, Metwally AA, Ebeid FA (1991). Effect of praziquantel on the distribution of interstitial collagen types I and III and basement membrane collagen types IV and V in murine hepatic schistosomiasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 85: 752-755.
  35. Ebeid FA, Badrawy AA, Mostafa AM, Saad AM, Mahmoud A (1991). Toxicological study of the new Molluscicdal plants: Fagonia cretica and Agave filifera. Egypt J Bilh, 13: 171-179.
  36. Badawy AA, El-Badrawy NM, Nada G, El-Garem A, Ebeid FA, Abdel Hady A, Saied S, AKL M (1991). Effect of praziquantel on hepatic murine schistosomiasis: histopathological study. Immunolocalization of type III precollagen and serological analysis. Egypt J Bilh, 13: 117-129.
  37. Shaker ZA, Hassanein HI, Hamed RR, Botros SS, Mahmoud FS, Mohamed SH, El-Garem AA, De Jonge N, Deedler AM (1992). Detection of circulating anodic antigen before and after specific chemotherapy in experimental murine schistosomiasis mansoni. Int J Immunopharmacol, 14(2): 151-158.
  38. Shaheen AA, Ebeid FA (1992). Effect of praziquantel on Brain and Kidney ATPase activities in healthy and mansoni-infected mice. Arzneim-forsch/Drug Res, 42: 1504-1506.
  39. Akl M, El-Badrawy NM, Grimoud G, El-Hindawy A, Ebeid FA, Mansy S, Abdel Hadi A, Abdel Ghany A, El-Garem A (1992). Relation of Fibronectin localization to fibrosis in hepatic granulomas of murine schistosomiasis mansoni. A histopathological and an immuno-histochemical study. Egypt J Bilh, 14: 19-28.
  40. El-Fandy G, Mansy SS, Ebeid FA, El-Badrawy NM (1992). Effect of Halothane or Enflurane on hepatic functions and ultrastructure of the liver in murine schistosomiasis. Egypt J Bilh, 14: 43-54.
  41. El-Fandy G, Mansy SS, Taha AM, Helmy H, Ebeid FA, El-Badrawy N (1993). Ultrastructural hepatic effects of repeated subanaesthetic concentrations of Halothane and Enflurane in mice. Egypt J Anaesth, 9: 35-44.
  42. Ebeid FA, Metwally AA, Botros SS, Bennett JL (1994). Treatment of experimental schistosomiasis mansoni with praziquantel alone and combined with cimetidine. Arzneim-Forsch/Drug Res, 44: 1268-1270.
  43. Metwally AA, Bennett JL, Botros SS, Ebeid FA, El- Bassiouni NE, El-Attar GM (1994). Therapeutic evaluation of two brands of praziquantel in combination with cimetidine in Egyptians infected with Schistosoma mansoni. J Egypt Med Assoc, 77 (7-12): 349-360.
  44. Shaheen AA, Abdel-Fatah AA, Ebeid FA (1994). Effect of praziquantel treatment on lipid peroxide levels and superoxide dismutase activity in tissues of healthy and mansoni-infected mice. Arzneim-Forsch/Drug Res, 44: 94-96.
  45. Ebeid FA, El-Ansary A, Faddah LM (1994). Screening of two pyrazolopyrinidines for schistosomicidal activity and their effect on serum transaminases of albino mice. Egypt J Bilh, 16: 201-210.
  46. Badawy AA, El-Badrawy N, Ebeid FA, Akl M, Abdel-Hady A, Mansy SS, Nada G, El-Garem AA, Yehya H (1994). Effect of combination of praziquantel and colchicine in murine schistosomal hepatic fibrosis. J Egypt Med Assoc, 77 (7-12): 335-347.
  47. El-Hawey AM, Rozik MS, Osman HM, Ebeid FA (1994). Effect of praziquantel on blood glutathione level in human schistosomiasis mansoni. J Biomed Sci Ther, 10(5): 83-97.
  48. Ebeid FA, El-Mohamady H (1994). Effect of praziquantel on alcohol dehydrogenase in mice liver infected with mansoni. Egypt J Bilh, 16: 99-105.
  49. Botros SS, Hassanein HI, Hassan SI, Akl MM, Sakr SS, Shaker ZA, Hafez GL, El-Gorab NM, Dean DA (1995). Immunoregulatory potential of exogenous Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigen in a model of experimental schistosomiasis. I-Regulation of granuloma in vivo. Int J Immunopharmacol, 17(4): 291-302.
  50. Metwally AA, Bennett JL, Botros SS, Ebeid FA (1995). Effect of cimetidine, bicarbonate and glucose on the bioavailability of different formulations of praziquantel. Forsch/Drug Res, 45(4): 516-518.
  51. Metwally AA, Bennett JL, Botros SS, Ebeid FA, El-Attar GM (1995). Impact of drug dosage and brand on bioavailability and efficacy of praziquantel. Pharmcol Res, 3:53-59.
  52. Ebeid FA (1995). Efficacy of a combination of metrifonate and praziquantel in the treatment of mansoni infection in albino mice. Arzneim-Forsch/Drug Res, 45: 516-518.
  53. Botros SS, Doughty BL, Shaker ZA, Akl MM, Diab TM, Hassanein HI (1996). Efficacy of an antipathology vaccine in murine schistosomiasis administered with and without chemotherapy. Int J Immunopharmacol , 18: 707-718.
  54. Badawy AA, El-Badrawy NM, Mansy SS, Akl M, Abdel-Hady AM, Ebeid FA, Hassan NM (1996). Evaluation of colchicine with or without praziquantel therapy in the control of hepatic fibrosis in murine schistosomiasis. Pharmacol Res, 33(6): 319-325.
  55. Botros SS, Mahmoud S, Hassan S, Ibrahim A, Zidek Z, Masek K (1996). Effect of Adamantylamide Dipeptide on reinfection resistance after primary infection eradication in experimental schistosomiasis mansoni. Forsch/Drug Res, 46(1): 74-78.
  56. Hassanein HI, Akl MM, El-Baz HG, Sharmy R, Rabie I, Botros SS (1997). Induction of hepatic egg granuloma hyporesponsiveness in murine schistosomiasis mansoni by intravenous injection of small doses of soluble egg antigen. APMIS, 105: 773-783.
  57. Badawy AA, El-Badrawy NM, Hassan NM, Ebeid FA (1999). Colchicine therapy for hepatic murine schistosomal fibrosis images analysis and serological study. Int J Exp Path, 80: 25-34.
  58. Ismail M, Botros S, Metwally A, William S, Farghali A, Tao LF, Day TA, Bennett JL (1999). Resistance to praziquantel: direct evidence from schistosomiasis mansoni isolated from Egyptian villagers. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 60(6): 932-935.
  59. Botros SS, Sabra AA, Kamel MM, Nagy FM, EL-Beih N, Hassanein HI (2000). Assessment of combined therapy of recombinant glutathione S-transferase 26 and praziquantel on the immunological responses. Forsch/Drug Res, 50(II): 929-935.
  60. William S, Botros S, Ismail M, Farghali A, Day TA, Bennett JL (2000). Praziquantel induced tegumental damage in vitro is diminished in schistosomes derived from praziquantel-resistant infections. Parasitology , 122: 63-66.
  61. Botros SS, Makary EA, Ahmed KM, Ibrahim AM, Nashed NN, El-Nahal HM, Doughty BL, Hassanein HI (2000). Effect of combined praziquantel and recombinant glutathione S-transferase on resistance to reinfection in murine schistosomiasis mansoni. Int J Immunopharmacol, 22: 979-988.
  62. Botros SS, Ekram AM, Kesmat MA, Abdallah MI, Nawal NN, El-Nahal HM, Doughty BI, Hassanein HI (2000). Effect of combined praziquantel and recombinant glutathione S-transferase on resistance to reinfection in murine schistosomiasis mansoni. Int J Pharmacol, 22: 979-988.
  63. Ebeid FA, Seif el-Din SH, Ezzat AR (2000). Effect of schistosomiasis mansoni infection and treatment on drug metabolizing enzymes. Arzneim Forsch/Drug Res, 50 (II): 867-874.
  64. Hammed H, Sherif S, Ebeid F (2000). Effect of praziquantel on some biochemical aspects in experimental schistosomiasis. Recent Res Devel Biotech & Bioeng, 3: 107-118.
  65. Mahmoud MR (2001). Effect of praziquantel alone and in combination with praziquantel in experimental schistosomiasis mansoni. Egypt J Schist Infect Endem Dis, 24: 37-54.
  66. Mahmoud MR, Refahy LA (2001). Molluscicidal, parasitological and toxicological studies on Lantana camara J Egypt Soc Pharmacol Exp Ther, 20(1): 265-286.
  67. William S, Sabra A, Ramzy F, Mousa Z, Demerdash M, Day TA, Bennett JL, Botros SS (2001). Stability and reproductive fitness of mansoni isolates with decreased sensitivity to praziquantel. Int J Parasitol, 31: 1093-1100.
  68. El-Amin SM, Mahmoud MR, Refahy LA (2001). Effect of Eclipta alba alone and in addition to praziquantel in murine schistosomiasis mansoni. Egypt J Schist Infect Endem Dis, 24: 55-68.
  69. Ezzat AR, Seif el-Din SH, Ebeid FA (2001). Effect of praziquantel treatment on the activities of some liver microsomal enzymes in mice infected with Schistosomiasis mansoni. Arzneim Forsch/Drug Res, 51(I): 325-331.
  70. Ebeid F, Mahmoud M, Sherif S, Hammad H (2001). Pharmacodynamic studies of praziquantel treatment in murine Schistosoma haematobium. Recent Res Devel Biotech & Bioeng, 4: 25-34.
  71. Ebeid F, Badawy AA, Mahmoud SS, El-Enany M, El-Shemy KR, El-Mohamady H (2002). Preliminary study of antischistosomal activity of new synthetic compounds. Kasr El Aini Med J, 8: 189-204.
  72. Mahmoud MR, Zohiery MK, Nousier M (2002). Effect of combined chemotherapy and anti-inflammatory drug in murine schistosomiasis. Arzneim Forsch/Drug Res, 52(II): 294-301.
  73. Mahmoud MR, El-Abhar HS, Saleh S (2002). The effect of Nigella sativa oil against the liver damage induced by schistosomiasis mansoni infection in mice. J Ethnopharmacol, 79: 1-11.
  74. Hanallah S, El-Lakkany N, Mahmoud S, Mousa M, Botros S (2003). Altered immunoglobulin isotype profile and anti-immature worm surface immunoglobulins in mice harboring a praziquantel-resistant Schistosoma mansoni APMIS, 111 (12): 1125-1132.
  75. El-Ridy MS, Mahmoud MR, Kamel MM, Salem LM (2003). Effect of varying the pharmaceutical formulation on the biochemical availability and immunological behavior of the schistosomicidal drug, oxamniquine. Egypt J Schist Infect Endem Dis, 25: 17-30.
  76. Oraby HS, Ebeid FA, Oraby HS (2003). Miconuclei formation in bone marrow cells of mice infected with mansoni and the efficacy of praziquantel treatment. J Egypt Soc Toxicol, 28: 51-56.
  77. Sheweita SA, Mostafa MH, Ebeid FA, El-Sayed W (2003). Changes in expression and activity of glutathione S-transferase in different organs of haematobium-infected hamsters. J Biochem Mol Toxicol, 17: 1-8.
  78. Botors S, William S, Hammam O, Zdenek Z, Holy A (2003). Activity of 9-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy) propyl] adenine against schistosomiasis mansoni in mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 47(12): 3853-3858.
  79. Botros S, William S, Ebeid F, Cioli D, Katz N, Day T, Bennett JL (2004). Lack of evidence for the antischistosomal activity of myrrh in experimental animals. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 71(2): 206-210.
  80. El-Nahas HA, Abdel-Hamed ES, Sabra AA, El-Wakil E (2004). Steroidal glycosides of Furcarea selloea and their biological properties against different Schistosoma mansoni stages. J Biol Pharm Sci, 2: 21-41.
  81. William S, Botros S (2004). Validation of sensitivity to praziquantel using Schistosoma mansoni worm muscle tension and Ca2+-uptake as possible in vitro correlates to in vivo ED50 determination. Int J Parasitol, 34(8): 971-977.
  82. Cioli D, Botros S, Wheatcroft-Francklow K, Mbaye A, Southgate V, Tchuem-Tchuente LA, Pica-Mattocia L, Troiani AR, Seif el-Din S, Sabra A, Albin J, Engels D, Doenhoff MJ (2004). Determination of ED50 values for praziquantel in praziquantel-resistant and-susceptible Schistosoma mansoni Int J Parasitol, 34: 979-987.
  83. Botros S, Sayed H, El-Dusoki H, Sabry H, Rabie I, El-Ghanam M, Hassan M, Abdel-Wahab Y, Engels D (2004). Efficacy of Mirazid in Egyptian Schistosoma mansoni infected school children and households. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 72(2): 119-123.
  84. Seif el-Din SH, El-Lakkany NM, Badawy AA, Ebeid F (2004). Inhibitory effects of grapefruit juice co-administration with praziquantel on some hepatic microsomal enzymes in murine Schistosoma mansoni. Kasr El Aini Med J, 10(3): 51-62.
  85. El-Lakkany NM, Seif el-Din SH, Badawy AA, Ebeid F (2004). Effect of artemether alone and in combination with grapefruit juice on hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes and biochemical aspects in experimental Schistosoma mansoni. Int J Parasitol, 34: 1405-1412.
  86. Mahmoud MR, Botros SS (2004). Artemether as adjuvant therapy to praziquantel in murine Egyptian schistosomiasis mansoni. J Parasitol, 91(1): 175-178.
  87. Marzouk MS, Soliman FM, Shehata IA, Mahmoud MR, Fawzy GH (2004). Biologically active hydrolysable tannins from jussea repens. Bull Fac  Pharm  Cairo Univ, 42 (3): 119-131.
  88. Botros S, Sayed S, Amer N, El-Ghannam M, Bennett GL, Day TA (2005). Current status of sensitivity to praziquantel in a focus of potential drug resistance in Egypt. Int J Parasitol, 35: 787-791.
  89. Botros S, Pica-Mattoccia L, William S, El-Lakkany N, Cioli D (2005). Effect of praziquantel on the immature stages of Schistosoma haematobium. Int J Parasitol, 35: 1453-1457.
  90. Ebeid F, El-lakkany N, Seif el-Din S, Sabra A, Noseir M, Botros S (2005). Effect of mirazid against different developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni worms and its safety in normal mice. J Egypt Schistosomiasis Infec Endem Dis, 27:15-24.
  91. Botros SS, Sayed H, El-Dusoki H, Sabry H, Rabie I, El-Ghannam M, Hassanein M, Abd El-Wahab Y, Engels D (2005). Efficacy of mirazid in comparison with praziquantel in Egyptian Schistosoma mansoni-infected school children and households. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 72(2): 119-123.
  92. Ebeid FA, Mahmoud SS, Botros SS, Badawy AA (2005). Evaluation of the antibilharzial activity of mirazid versus praziquantel against haematobium: An experimental study. J Egypt Schistosomiasis Infect Endem Dis, 27: 25-37.
  93. Manhi F, Mahmoud M (2005). Studies on the reactivity of fused thiazole toward nucleophilic reagents: synthesis of new thiazolo-derivatives of potential antischistosomal activity. Heteroatom Chemist, 16(2): 121-131.
  94. Saleh S, Mahmoud MR, El-Abhar H, Omran Z (2005). Anti-schistosomal effect of thymoquinone in murine schistosomiasis mansoni: influence on nitric oxide, icam-1 and collagen. Medical J Kaser El- Aini, 11: 117- 127.
  95. Day TA, Botros S (2006). Drug resistance in schistosomes. Maule A, Marks N J, editors. Wallington, Oxfordshire, UK: CAB International; Parasitic Flatworms Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Immunology and Physiology, 256-268.
  96. Botros SS, Seif El-Din S, El-Lakkany N, Sabra A, Ebeid F (2006). Drug metabolizing enzymes and praziquantel bioavailability in mice harboring Schistosoma mansoni isolates of different drug susceptibilities. J Parasitol, 92(6):1344-1349.
  97. Mahmoud M, Ebeid FA, Nosseir M (2006). Enhanced role of Grapefruit on the antischistosomal activity of Artemether on the liver of Schistosoma haematobium infected hamsters. Sci Pharm, 74: 59-75.
  98. Botros SS, Mahmoud MR, Hammam O, Salah F, Zidek Z, Masek K (2006).  Effect of adamantylamide dipeptide as adjuvant therapy to praziquantel in mice infected with different mansoni isolates. APMIS, 114: 480-491.
  99. El-Ridy MS, Mostafa DM, Mahmoud MR (2006). Optimizing liposome-encapsulated praziquantel formulations for treating and overcoming resistant isolates of Schistosoma mansoni. Bull NRC, 30 (6): 531-545.
  100. Keiser J, Abou El-Ela N, El-Komy E, El-Lakkany N, Diab T, Chollet J, Utzinger J, Barakat R (2006). Triclabendazole and its two main metabolites lack activity against Schistosoma mansoni in the mouse model. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 75(2): 287-291.
  101. Moharram FA, Mahmoud II, Mahmoud MR, Sabry SA (2006). polyphenolic profile and biological study of salvia fruticosa. Natural Product Communications (NPC), 1(9): 475- 750.
  102. Ibrahim S, Bedeer B, Mahboub M, Madiha R. Mahmoud, El Nawasra N (2006). Evaluation of the preventive effect of artemether on schistosomiasis mansoni. The Egyptian J Med Sci, 27(1): 113- 128.
  103. Ibrahim S, Bedeer B, Mahboub M, Mahmoud MR, El Nawasra N (2006). Comparative study on the effect of artemether and praziquantel on Schistosoma mansoni infected mice. Sci J Az Med Fac (Girls), 27(2): 1923- 1935.
  104. Botros SS, Sabra A, Diab T (2006). Immunoglobulin profile in mice harbouring Schistosoma mansoni isolates showing different susceptibility to the praziquantel over different life cycle passages (snail-mouse). J Egypt Schistosomiasis Infect Endem Dis, 28: 27-40.
  105. Mahmoud M, Abdel-Kader R, Hasan M, Saleh S, Botros SS (2007). Antipyrine clearance in comparison to conventional liver function tests in hepatitis C virus patients. Eur J Pharamacol, 569(3): 222-227.
  106. Marzouk MS, Soliman FM, Shehata IA, Mahmoud MR, Fawzy GH (2007). Flavonoids and biological activities of jussiaea repens. Nat Prod Res, 21(5): 436- 443.
  107. Botros SS, Mahmoud MR, Moussa MM, Nosseir MM (2007). Immunohistopathological and biochemical changes in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice treated with artemether. J infect, 55(5): 470-477.
  108. Ibrahim MT, Moharram FA, Marzouk MS, Mahmoud MR, Kitaz AM (2007). Flavonoids and biological activities of bplumbago auriculata var. Alba. Bull Fac Pharm. Cairo Univ, 45(1): 161-169.
  109. Botros SS, Abdel Kader R, El-Ghannam M, El-Ray A, Saleh, S, Mahmoud MR (2007). State of metabolic function after dimethyl diphenyl bicarboxylate treatment HCV patients using antipyrine clearance in comparison to conventional liver function tests. Int J Trop Med, 2(3): 101-106.
  110. El-Lakkany N, Noseir M (2007). Pharmacodynamics of pentoxifylline and/or praziquantel in murine schistosomiasis mansoni. APMIS, 115: 184-194.
  111. Seif el-Din SH, Ebeid FA, Badawy AA, Ezzat AR (2007). Protective effects of β-carotene, N-acetyl-L-cysteine with and without Praziquantel treatment in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. J Egypt Schistosomiasis Infect Endem Dis, 28: 67-90.
  112. Botros S, Bennett J (2007). Praziquantel resistance. Expert Opin Drug Discov, 2: 535-540.
  113. Badawy AA, Ebeid FA, Ezzat AR, Seif el-Din SH (2007). Enhancement role of β-carotene against experimental schistosomiasis. J Egypt Schistosomiasis Infect Endem Dis, 29: 67-90.
  114. Sabra AN, Botros S (2008). Response of Schistosoma mansoni isolates having different drug sensitivity to praziquantel over several life cycle passages with and without therapeutic pressure. J Parasitol, 94(2): 537-541.
  115. Botros SS, Hammam OM, El-Lakkany NM, Seif el-Din SH, Ebeid FA (2008). Schistosoma haematobium (Egyptian strain): Rate of development and effect of praziquantel treatment. J Parasitol, 94: 386-394.
  116. Botros SS, Sabra A, William S (2008). Miracidial assay as a simple, inexpensive biological test for sensitivity to praziquantel (PZQ) using field and laboratory PZQ-susceptible and insusceptible Schistosoma mansoni Aust J Basic Appl Sci, 2: 677-684.
  117. Doenhoff MJ, Hagan P, Cioli D, Southgate V, Pica-Mattocia L, Botros SS, Coles G, Tchuem-Tchuente LA, Mbaye A, Engeles D (2009). Praziquantel: Its use in control of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa and current research needs. Parasitology, 13: 1-11.
  118. Botros SS, El-Lakkany NM, Badawy AA, Mahmoud SS, Ebeid FA, Fenwick A (2009). Mirazid shows insignificant activity against ovine fascioliasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 103(7):1-12.
  119. Botros S, El-Lakkany N, Seif el-Din S, Sabra A, Ibrahim M (2011). Comparative efficacy and bioavailability of different praziquantel brands. Exp Parasitol, 127: 515-521.
  120. Seif el-Din SH, Al-Hroob AM, Ebeid FA (2011). Schistosoma mansoni: N-Acetylcysteine downregulates oxidative stress and enhances the antischistosomal activity of artemether in mice. Exp Parasitol, 128: 230-235.
  121. El-Lakkany N, Seif el-Din S, Ebeid F (2011). The use of pentoxifylline as adjuvant therapy with praziquantel downregulates profibrogenic cytokines, collagen deposition and oxidative stress in experimental schistosomiasis mansoni. Exp Parasitol, 129:152–157.
  122. Keiser J, Sayed H, El-Ghanam M, Sabry H, Anani S, El-Wakeel A, Hatz C, Utzinger J, Seif el-Din S, El-Maadawy W, Botros S (2011). Efficacy and safety of artemether in the treatment of chronic fascioliasis in egypt: exploratory phase-2 trials. PLoS Neglec Trop Dis, 5(9): e1285.
  123. El-Lakkany NM, El-Maadawy W, Ain-Shoka A, Badawy A, Hammam O, Ebeid F (2011). Potential antifibrotic effects of AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan, and⁄or praziquantel on acute and chronic experimental liver fibrosis induced by Schistosoma mansoni. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol, 38: 695-704.
  124. El-Lakkany NM, Seif el-Din SH, Sabra AA, Hammam OA (2011). Pharmacodynamics of mefloquine and praziquantel combination therapy in mice harbouring juvenile and adult Schistosoma mansoni. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, 106(7): 814-822.
  125. El-Lakkany NM, Hammam O, El-Maadawy W, Ain-Shoka A, Badawy A, Ebeid F (2012). Anti-inflammatory/anti-fibrotic effects of the hepatoprotective silymarin and the schistosomicide praziquantel against Schistosoma mansoni-induced liver fibrosis. Parasit Vectors, 5: P 1-14.
  126. El-Lakkany N, Seif el-Din S, Heikal L (2012). Bioavailability and in vivo efficacy of a praziquantel–polyvinylpyrrolidone solid dispersion in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet, 37: 289−299.
  127. Liu H, William S, Herdtweck E, Botros S, Dömling A (2012). MCR synthesis of praziquantel derivatives. Chem Biol Drug Des, 79: 470-7.
  128. El-Lakkany NM, Seif el-Din SH, Sabra AA, Ebeid FA, Botros SS (2012). Changes in hepatic phase-I and -II drug-metabolizing enzymes and antioxidant capacity in Egyptian ovine fascioliasis treated with triclabendazole. Global J Pharmacol, 6: 199-207.
  129. Nwaka S, Ochem A, Besson D, Ramirez B, Fakorede F, Botros S, Inyang U, Mgone C, Adae-Mensah I, Konde V, Nyasse B, Okole B, Guantai A, Loots G, Atadja P, Ndumbe P, Sanou I, Olesen O, Ridley R, Ilunga T (2012). Analysis of pan-African Centres of excellence in health innovation highlights opportunities and challenges for local innovation and financing in the continent. BMC Int Health Hum Rights, 27:11.
  130. Seif el-Din SH, Sabra AA, Hammam OA, El-Lakkany NM (2013). Effect of ketoconazole, a cytochrome p450 inhibitor, on the efficacy of quinine and halofantrine against adult schistosoma mansoni in mice. The Korean J Parasitol, 51(2): 165-175.
  131. El-Lakkany NM, Seif el-Din SH (2013). Haemin enhances the in vivo efficacy of artemether against juvenile and adult Schistosoma mansoni in mice. Parasitol Res, 112(5):2005-2015.
  132. Seif el-Din SH, El-Lakkany NM, Mohamed MA, Hamed MM, Sterner O, Botros SS (2014). Potential effect of the medicinal plants Calotropis procera, Ficus elastica and Zingiber officinale against Schistosoma mansoni in mice. Pharm Biol, 52(2):144-150.
  133. William S, Saad A, Abdou A, Refahy L, Sabra A, Sterner O, Botros S (2014). Potential antischistosomal activities of some Egyptian native plants using Schistosoma mansoni worm killing assay. Global J Pharmacol, 8(2): 237-244.
  134. Al-Sayed E, El-Lakkany NM, Seif, el-Din SH, Sabra AA, Hammam OA (2014). Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Melaleuca styphelioides on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Pharm Biol, 52(12):1581-1590.
  135. Sherif SA, Moharib MN, El-Lakkany NM, Hammam OA, Salman FH, El-Naggar MM (2014). The use of microencapsulated hepatocytes transplantation reduces mortality and liver alterations in Schistosoma mansoni infected hamsters. J Egypt Soc Parasitol, 44(1): 229-242.
  136. Al-Sayed E, Martiskainen O, Seif el-Din SH, Sabra AA, Hammam OA, El-Lakkany NM, Abdel-Daim MM (2014). Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of Bauhinia hookeri extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice and characterization of its bioactive compounds by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS. BioMed Res Int, org/10.1155/2014/245171.
  137. Seif El-Din SH, Sabra AA, Hammam OA, Ebeid FA, El-Lakkany NM (2014). Pharmacological and antioxidant actions of garlic and/or onion in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats. J Egypt Soc Parasitol, 44(2): 295-308.
  138. Seif el-Din SH, El-Lakkany NM, El-Naggar AA, Hammam OA, Abd El-Latif HA, Ain-Shoka AA, Ebeid FA (2015). Effects of rosuvastatin and/or β-carotene on non-alcoholic fatty liver in rats. Res Pharm Sci, 10(4): 275−287.
  139. El-Feky GS, Mohamed WS, Nasr HE, El-Lakkany NM, Seif el-Din SH, Botros SS (2015). Praziquantel in a clay nanoformulation shows more bioavailability and higher efficacy against murine Schistosoma mansoni infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 59(6): 3501−3508.
  140. El-Sayed S. Abdel-Hameed, Salih A. Bazaid, Abdel Nasser A. Sabra (2015). Total phenolic, in vitro antioxidant activity and safety assessment (Acute, sub-chronic and chronic toxicity) of industrial Taif rose water by-product in mice. Der Pharmacia Lett, 7 (2):251-259.
  141. Sanaa S. Botros, Naglaa M, El-Lakkany, Olfat A Hammam, Abdel-Naser A. Sabra, Alaa A.Taha (2016). Possible carcinogenic potential of dimethyl dimethoxybiphenyl dicarboxylate in experimental animals. J Adv Pharm Technol Res, 7:54-8.
  142. El-Lakkany NM, Hendawy AS, Seif el-Din SH, Ashour AA, Atta R, Abdel-Aziz AH, Mansour AM, Botros SS (2016). Bioavailability of paracetamol with/without caffeine in Egyptian patients with hepatitis C virus. Eur J Clin pharmacol, 72(5):573-82.
  143. Sayed Hassan Seif el-Din, Naglaa Mohamed El-Lakkany, Maha Badr Salem, Olfat Ali Hammam, Samira Saleh, Sanaa Sabet Botros (2016). Resveratrol mitigates hepatic injury in rats by regulating oxidative stress, nuclear factor-kappa B and apoptosis. J Adv Pharm. Technol Res,7: 99-104.
  144. El-Lakkany NM, Seif El-Din SH, Sabra AA, Hammam OA, Ebeid FA (2016). Co-administration of metformin and N-acetylcysteine with dietary control improves the biochemical and histological manifestations in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver. Res Pharm Sci, 11(5): 374-382.
  145. Ezzat SM, Salama MM, Seif El-Din SH, Saleh S, El-Lakkany NM, Hammam OA, Salem MB, Botros SS (2016). Metabolic profile and hepatoprotective activity of the anthocyanin-rich extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa Pharm Biol, 54(12):3172-3181.
  146. El-Lakkany NM, El-Maadawy WH, Seif el-Din SH, Hammam O, Mohamed SH, Ezzat SM, Safar MM, Saleh S (2017). Rosmarinic acid attenuates hepatic fibrogenesis via suppression of hepatic stellate cell activation/proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Asian Pac J Trop Med 10(5):444-53.
  147. El-Lakkany NM, El-Maadawy WH, Seif El-Din SH, Saleh S, Safar MM, Ezzat SM, Mohamed SH, Botros SS, Demerdash Z, Hammam OA (2019). Antifibrotic effects of gallic acid on hepatic stellate cells: In vitro and in vivo mechanistic study. J Tradit Complement Med 9(1): 45-53.
  148. Radwan A, El-Lakkany NM, William S, El-Feky GS, Al-Shorbagy MY, Saleh S, Botros S (2019). A novel praziquantel solid lipid nanoparticle formulation shows enhanced bioavailability and antischistosomal efficacy against murine mansoni infection. Parasit Vectors. 12(1):304.
  149. Ghareeb MA, Sobeh M, El-Maadawy WH, Mohammed HS, Khalil H, Botros S, Wink M. chemical profiling of polyphenolics in Eucalyptus globulus and evaluation of its hepato-renal protective potential against cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity in mice. Antioxidants (Basel) 2019; 8(9): pii: E415.
  150. Botros SS, William S, Sabra AA, El-Lakkany NM, Seif El-Din SH, García-Rubia A, Sebastián-Pérez V, Blaazer AR, de Heuvel E, Sijm M, Zheng Y, Salado IG, Munday JC, Maes L, de Esch IJP, Sterk GJ, Augustyns K, Leurs R, Gil C, De Koning HP (2019). Screening of a PDE-focused library identifies imidazoles with in vitro and in vivo antischistosomal activity. Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist. 9:35-43.
  151. Botros SS, El-Lakkany NM, Seif El-Din SH, William S, Sabra AN, Hammam OA, de Koning HP (2020). The phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor roflumilast impacts Schistosoma mansoni ovipositing in vitro but displays only modest antischistosomal activity in vivo. Exp Parasitol. 208:107793.
  152. El-Maadawy WH, Hammam OA, Seif El-Din SH, El-Lakkany NM (2020). α-Lipoic acid modulates liver fibrosis: A cross talk between TGF-β1, autophagy, and apoptosis. Hum Exp Toxicol 39(4): 440−450.
  153. Sebastian-Perez V, García-Rubia A, Seif El-Din SH, Sabra AA, El-Lakkany NM, William S, Blundell TL, Maes L, Martinez A, Campillo NE, Botros SS, Gil C (2020). Deciphering the enzymatic target of a new family of antischistosomal agents bearing a quinazoline scaffold using complementary computational tools. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 35(1): 511−523.
  154. Ahmed LA, Salem MB, Seif El-Din SH, El-Lakkany NM, Ahmed HO, Nasr SM, Hammam OA, Botros SS, Saleh S (2020). Gut microbiota modulation as a promising therapy with metformin in rats with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: Role of LPS/TLR4 and autophagy pathways. Eur J Pharmacol. 887:
  155. Radwan SAA, El-Maadawy WH, ElMeshad AN, Shoukri RA, Yousry C (2020). Impact of Reverse Micelle Loaded Lipid Nanocapsules on the Delivery of Gallic Acid into Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells: A Promising Therapeutic Approach for Hepatic Fibrosis. Pharm Res. 37(9):
  156. Radwan SAA, El-Maadawy WH, Yousry C, ElMeshad AN, Shoukri RA (2020). Zein/Phospholipid Composite Nanoparticles for Successful Delivery of Gallic Acid into aHSCs: Influence of Size, Surface Charge, and Vitamin A Coupling. Int J Nanomedicine. 15:7995-8018.
  157. Khalil HMA, Eliwa HA, El-Shiekh RA, Al-Mokaddem AK, Hassan M, Tawfek AM, El-Maadawy WH (2021). Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) root extract attenuates hepatic and cognitive deficits in thioacetamide-induced rat model of hepatic encephalopathy via induction of Nrf2/HO-1 and mitigation of NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathways. J Ethnopharmacol. 15;277:
  158. Seif El-Din SH, Salem MB, El-Lakkany NM, Hammam OA, Nasr SM, Okasha H, Ahmed LA, Saleh S, Botros SS. Early intervention with probiotics and metformin alleviates liver injury in NAFLD rats via targeting gut microbiota dysbiosis and p-AKT/mTOR/LC-3II pathways. Hum Exp Toxicol. 8:
  159. El-Maadawy WH, Seif el-Din SH, Ezzat SM, Hammam OA, Safar MM, Saleh S, El-Lakkany NM (2021). Rutin Ameliorates Hepatic Fibrosis via Targeting Hepatic Stellate Cells’ Activation, Proliferation and Apoptosis. Herbs, Spices, Med. Plants 27 (3), 322-341.
  160. Abdou RM, El-Maadawy WH, Hassan M, El-Dine RS, Aboushousha T, El-Tanbouly ND, El-Sayed AM (2021). Nephroprotective activity of Aframomum melegueta seeds extract against diclofenac-induced acute kidney injury: A mechanistic study. Ethnopharmacol. 273:113939.
  161. Mahmoud TN, El-Maadawy WH, Kandil ZA, Khalil H, El-Fiky NM, El Alfy TSMA. Canna x generalis L.H (2021). Bailey rhizome extract ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis via modulating intestinal mucosal dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation, and TLR4/ NF-ҡB and NLRP3 inflammasome pathways. Ethnopharmacol. 269:113670.
  162. El-Lakkany NM, Elkattan HH, Elsisi AE (2021). The ponatinib/gossypol novel combination provides enhanced anticancer activity against murine solid Ehrlich carcinoma via triggering apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation/angiogenesis. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 432:
  163. Khalil HMA, Eliwa HA, El-Shiekh RA, Al-Mokaddem AK, Hassan M, Tawfek AM, El-Maadawy WH (2021). Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) root extract attenuates hepatic and cognitive deficits in thioacetamide-induced rat model of hepatic encephalopathy via induction of Nrf2/HO-1 and mitigation of NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathways. J Ethnopharmacol. 15:277:114141.
  164. El-Maadawy WH, Hassan M, Abdou RM, El-Dine RS, Aboushousha T, El-Tanbouly ND, El-Sayed AM (2022). 6-Paradol alleviates Diclofenac-induced acute kidney injury via autophagy enhancement-mediated by AMPK/AKT/mTOR and NLRP3 inflammasome pathways. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 91:
  165. El-Maadawy WH, Hassan M, Hafiz E, Badawy MH, Eldahshan S, AbuSeada A, El-Shazly MAM, Ghareeb MA (2022). Co-treatment with Esculin and erythropoietin protects against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury via P2X7 receptor inhibition and PI3K/Akt activation. Sci Rep. 12(1):
  166. El-Maadawy WH, Hafiz E, Okasha H, Osman NA, Ali GH, Hussein RA (2022). Phycocyanin stimulates ulcerative colitis healing via selective activation of cannabinoid receptor-2, ntestinal mucosal healing, Treg accumulation, and p38MAPK/MK2 signaling inhibition. Life Sci. 305:
  167. Khalil HMA, Khalil IA, Al-Mokaddem AK, Hassan M, El-Shiekh RA, Eliwa HA, Tawfek AM, El-Maadawy WH (2022). Ashwagandha-loaded nanocapsules improved the behavioral alterations, and blocked MAPK and induced Nrf2 signaling pathways in a hepatic encephalopathy rat model. Drug Deliv Transl Res. doi: 10.1007/s13346-022-01181-y. Epub ahead of print.
  168. Sabra AA, Salem MB, William S, Hammam OA, El-Lakkany NM (2022). Itraconazole, a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, enhanced the efficacy of praziquantel against Schistosoma mansoni infection and alleviated liver injury in mice. Exp Parasitol. 239:
  169. Hendawy AS, El-Lakkany NM, Mantawy EM, Hammam OA, Botros SS, El-Demerdash E (2022). Vildagliptin alleviates liver fibrosis in NASH diabetic rats via modulation of insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cascades. Life Sci. 304: